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Where is the dura mater, composition?
- Outermost meningeal layer
- composed of dense collagenous connective tissue
Where and what is the arachnoid?
- intermediate meningeal layer
- formed by delicate fibers of CT forming web-like pattern
- Filled with CSF
What is the function of the arachnoid granulations
structures that reabsorb CSF from the ventricular circulation into the venous system
What and where is the pia mater? Vascularization (Y/N)?
- Innermost meningeal layer
- consists of a thin membrane that adheres to underlying neural tissue
- highly vascularized
Where is the epidural? What is found there?
between the dura mater and cranial endosteum. Mengeal vessels found here
Where is the subdural space? What is found there?
- Between the dura mater and the arachnoid
- bridging veins that drain into dural venous sinuses are found in this layer
Where is the subarachnoid space? what is it's function
- Between arachnoid and pia
- filled with CSF
- major cerebral arteries travel in this space sending penetrating branches to the pia
What is the function of the falx cerebri?
2-fold dura that separates the 2 cerebral hemispheres
What is the tentorium cerebelli?
- 2-fold dura that separate the posterior cerebrum from the cerebellum;
- cerebellar roof
What does the superior sagittal sinus recieve? Run? Location?
- Receives contribution from cortical veins
- runts ANT-> POST
- located on the mid-saggital plane deep to the calvaria
What does the inferior safittal sinus drain?
- drains the deep/medial cerebral hemispheres
- drains into the straight sinus
What does the cortical veins drain and drain into?
Drains the cerebral cortex and drains into the superior sagittal sinus
What does the straight sinus due and drain into and finish at?
- Joins the superior and inferior sinuses
- drains into the transverse sinus --> drains into the internal jugular vein
What is the function of the confluence of sinuses
Point of convergence of the Straight, Superior, Sagittal, and Occipital Sinuses.
What is the function and location of choroid plexuses?
- Network of capillaries (choroid epithelial cells) that synthesize CSF.
- Located in all ventricles
What is the lateral ventricles developed from, structure, location?
- Developed from neural tube expansion
- Located deep into the cerebral cortex
- filed with CSF
- 3 horns named after the lobes they expan into.
What connects the lateral ventricles with the 3rd ventricle?
The interventricular foramina of Monro
What forms the walls of the 3rd ventricle?
Thalami and hypothalamus
What is the interthalamic adhesion?
Foramen in the 3rd ventricle filled with the connection between the 2 thalami
What is the passage between the 3rd and 4th ventricles?
Cerebral aqueduct (no choroid plexi here)
Where is the 4th ventricle found? continuous with? Foramina do what?
- Found between the cerebellum and brainstem
- Multiple foramina that allow CSF into subarachnoid space
- continuous INF with central canal in closed medulla and spinal cord.
Where is the foramina of lushka? how many?
2 foramina off of lateral recess of 4th ventricle
Where is the foramen of megendie?
It is off the POST 4th ventricle
What is the ventricular division found in the lower medulla and spinal cord?
What is the internal carotid artery a branch of? Bifucations go to what?
- Branch of common carotid
- bifuractes into MCA and ACA at circle of willis
How does the middle cerebral artery arise? Branches?
- Continuation of the internal carotid artery.
- bifurcates into superior and inferior division
What does the middle cerebral artery supply?
lateral aspect of the cerebral hemispheres, superior and inferior sylvian sulcus
What is the start and supply of the anterior cerebral artery?
- continuation of internal carotid
- supplies the cerebral cortex on the ANT MED surface, from the frontal to the anterior parietal lobes.
What is the function of the anterior communication artery:
communicates withe both ACAs
What is the function of the POST COMM artery
communicates the internal carotid with the PCA on the same side.
What is the supply of the posterior cerebral artery? formed by?
- Formed by basilar artery where it bifurcates
- supplies the INF and MED temporal lobes and occipital cortex
What is the supply of the superior cerebellar artery? What can it cause?
- Supplies superior cerebellum and midbrain
- Potentially can cause trigeminal neuralgia
What forms the basilar artery? location?
- Located in ANT Pons
- Formed by the junction of the 2 vertebral arteries.
What are the horrizontal branches of the basilar artery? What does it supply
- Pontine fibers
- supplies the ANT pons
What does the ANT INF cerebellar artery arise from? Make connections with?
- Arises from basilar artery
- anastomoses with the PICA
What does the AICA supply? Pathology with it?
- supplies the anterior cerebellum
- Lateral pontine syndrome
What does the PICA arise from, anastomose with?
- Arises from vertebral artery
- anastomoses with AICA
What is the supply and pathology of the PICA?
- Supplies the postero-inferior surface of he cerebellum
- Pathology - Wallenberg's syndrome
Where do the vertebral arteries come from and form?
- Branches of the subclavian arteries
- converge to form the basilar artery
ASA supplies? branches from?
- supplies anterior spinal cord
- branches of the vertebral arteries.