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documenting what happens in a client session
evidence based practice
- goes beyond just this field
- started in UK
- know how to read and grade the literature
- applying what the literature says to your practice
- dont have to know the answer
- always asking questions when in the clinic
- the literature tends to publish only positive results
- negative results can also be beneficial
- subjective: observation
- objective: what happened in the session
- assessment: how did the client do?; "your impression"
- plan: what's next?
What are the components of a research paper?
how to formulate your own question
- pick a subject of interest
- do some reading on the topic; pay attention to the end of the discussion section
- find out what the issues/controversies are on your topic
- what has been left out/not addressed?
the format of the best research questions
- quantitative question
- ex: Does treatment X result in more word production that treatment Y?
FINER (characteristics of a research question)
- feasible: research must be possible
- interesting: will vary by person
- novel: there needs to be a next step in some topic
- ethical: moral
- relevant: related to CDIS
the variable that gets manipulated
usually what gets measured as a result of the independent variable
- good clinicians are always forming hypotheses
- ex: what is the next step in therapy?
- ex: what test should we use with her?
- ex: why did Johnny do so well in therapy today?
where to find the independent and dependent variable of a study
most questions give you a clue as to what the variables are
- there will be no difference
- goal of the investigator is to reject null hypothesis
often physiologically base in a laboratory with animals
with humans outside of the laboratory
- systematic observations that may not be manipulating a variable
- may lead to more controlled, experimental type of research
- ex: critical review (systematic review, or meta-analysis)
manipulates an independent variable while holding other variables constant
types of study design
- effectiveness research
- efficacy research
- take a group or individual and see if the variable you manipulated changed them in some way
- "the real world"
- have an experimental and a control group with strict controls on the design
- "the unreal world"
individual vs. group studies
- individual studies
- - easier to control
- - results hard to generalize to the population
- group studies
- - the larger the sample, the better the change of getting an estimate of the population
- all of the persons with a certain characteristic
- use samples of the population for research
normal distribution curve
- bell shaped curve
- represents sample/population
ways of gathering data
- retrospective research
- prospective research
- gather data on variables of interest, and analyze it after it has aready been collected
- may have missing data or incomplete data
- may try to look for something that is not there
- quick and easy
- set the variables of interest, collect the data, and analyze it
- complete data, therefore results more believable
- takes time