Chapter 3: Federalism: Forging a Nation

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Chapter 3: Federalism: Forging a Nation
2012-09-24 17:44:56
Political Science Chapter

Political Science Chapter 3
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  1. the supreme (or ultimate) authority to govern within a certain geographical area.
  2. a governmental system in which authority is divided between two sovereign levels of government: national and regional.
  3. a governmental system in which the national government alone has sovereigh (ultimate) authority.
    Unitary System
  4. a governmental system in which sovereighnry is vested entirely in subnational (state) governments.
  5. the seventeen powers granted to the national government under Artical 1, section 8, of the constitution. These powers include taxation and the regulation of commerce as well as the authority to provide for the national defense.
    Enumerated (Expressed) Powers
  6. Article VI of the constitution, which makes national law supreme over state law when the national government is acting within its constitutional limits.
    Supremacy Clause
  7. the authority granted Congress in Article 1, section 8, if the constitution "to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper" for the implementation of its enumerated powers.
    "Necessary and Proper" (Elastic) Clause 
  8. the federal governments constitutional authority (through the "necessary and proper clause") to take action that is not expressly authorized by the constitution but that support actions that are so authorized.
    Implied Powers
  9. the powers granted to the states under the Tenth Amendment of the constitution.
    Reserved Powers
  10. the process by which national authority has increased over the course of U.S. history as a result primarily of economic change but also of political action.
  11. a doctrine based on the idea that a precise separation of national power and state power is both possible and desirable.
    Dual Federalism
  12. the authority granted congress in Article 1, section 8, of the constitution "to regulate commerce" amoung the states.
    Commerce Clause
  13. the situation in which the national, state, and local levels work together to solve problems.
    Cooperation Federalism
  14. a term that refers to the expenditure of federal funds on programs run in part through states and localities.
    Fiscal Federalism
  15. ferderal cash payments to state and localities for programs they administer.
  16. federal grants-in-aid to states and localities that can be used only for designated projects.
    Catergorical Grants
  17. federal grants-in-aid that permit state and local officals to decide how the money will be spent within a general area, such as education or health.
    Block Grants
  18. the passing down of authority from the national government to the state and local governments.