Bio11, Part 2a
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a flattened sac or vesicle lined with a pigmented membrane that is the site of photosynthesis, in plants and algae occurring in interconnected stacks constituting a granum of the chloroplast, and in other photosynthesizing organisms occurring either singly or as part of the cell membrane or other structure.
Cell Biology . the supporting framework or matrix of a cell.
Botany . one of the structural units of a chloroplast in vascular plants, consisting of layers of thylakoids.
any of a group of red and yellow pigments, chemically similar to carotene, contained in animal fat and some plants.
the complex process by which carbon dioxide, water, and certain inorganic salts are converted into carbohydrates by green plants, algae, and certain bacteria, using energy from the sun and chlorophyll.
Also, stomate. Botany . any of various small apertures, especially one of the minute orifices or slits in the epidermis of leaves, stems, etc., through which gases are exchanged.
botany Compare dark reaction the stage of photosynthesis during which light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll and transformed into chemical energy stored in ATP
the second of two stages of photosynthesis, cuclic series of chemical reaction that occur in the strome of a chloroplast, using the carbon in CO2 and the ATP, and NADPH produced by teh light reactions to make the energy-rich sugar molecule G3p, which is later used to produced glucose
a fixed quantity of light energy, the shorter the wavelenghtof light the greater the energy of a photon
the full range of radiation, from the very shortwavelengths of gamma rays to the very long wavelenghts of radio signals.
Biology . any substance whose presence in the tissues or cells of animals or plants colors them.
electron transport chain
a series of electron carrier molecules that shuttle electrons furing the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP; located in the inner membrane of mitochondria, the thylakoid membrane of chloroplast, and the plasma membrane of prokaryotes.
the aerobic harvesting of energy from food molecules; the energyreleasing chemical breakdow of food molecules, such as glucose and the storage of potential energy in the form that cells can use to perform work; involves glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis.
the cultistep chemical breakdown of a molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid; the first state fo cellular respiration in all organisms; occurs in the cytoplasmic fluid
citric acid cycle
the metabolic cycle that is fueled by acetyl CoA formed after glycolysis in cellular respiration. chemical reactions in the sysle complete the metabolic breakdown of glucose moleculesto carbon dioxide. the sysle occurs in the matrix of mitochondria and supplies most of the NADH moleculesthat carry energyto the elctron transport chains. also referred to as the krebs cycles
Adenosine diphosphate- a molecule composed of adenosine and two phosphate groups. ATP is made by combining a molecule of ADP with a thrid phosphate in an energy-consuming reaction
an electron carrier, incolced in cellular respiration and photosynthesis, NADH carries electrons from glucose and other fuel molecules and deposits them at the top of an electron transport chain, NADH is generated during glycolysis and the citric acid cycle
an elctron carrier, involved in photosynthesis, light drives electrons from chlorophyll to NADP+, froming NADPH which procides the high-energy electrons for the reductionof carbon dioxide to sugar inteh calcin cycle
the loss of electrons from a substance incolced in a redox reaction; always accompanies reduction.
the gain of electron by a substance involved in a redox reaction; always accompanies oxidation
short fro reduction-oxidation reaction. a chemical reaction in which electrons are lost from one substance (oxidation) and added to antoher (reduction). oxidation and reduction always occur together.
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