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DNA s the material from which __________ are made.
Individual genes are are assigned specific loci(or positions) on
protein structures called___________.
The cell contains several nucleoli which are organelles that facillitate________ asssembly.
Woven throughout the cytoplasm is a filamentous membrane called the _____________.
The endoplasmic reticulum is continous with the___________
and houses the_____________.
nuclear membrane, ribosomes
Between he nucleus and the cell wall is as substance called
_________ made from__________and_________.
cytoplasm, cytosol, extranuclear organelles
Which organnelle is responsible for proten synthesis?
Which organelle stores and manages intracellular substances?
This organelle is important for intracellular digestion.
___________are organalles that harbor specific enzyme systems which facilitate certain metabolic processes.
Which organelle produces ATP?
___________function in cytoplasmic storage
____________ is the source of energy that drives intracellular metabolism.
What are the four phase of the cell cycle?
- G1, S, G2, Mitosis
- (G0 "the pit stop of the cell cycle" is not one of the four phases)
______is the period before duplication or synthesis of DNA in the nucleus.
In______living cells are fully functioning but not programmed for mitosis.
The _____ _____ is the observable sequenceof events pursued during the life span of a dividing cell.
The _________ phase is extremely variable in length.
The________phase is the period in which nuclear DNA is synthesized and chromosomes are duplicated.
During _________phase, the cell is growng, producng proteins and organelles and discharging it's metabolic responsiblities.
The shortest phase of the cell cycle is the___________ phase.
Radiation is most effective during the ______phase.
DNA is composed of a series of _________.
Deoxyribonucleotides,which are are the building blocks of ________ are composed of three chemical components: _________, ________, and __________.
phospate group, deoxribose or ribose(5 carbon sugar) depending on wheeher it's DNA or RNA, and a nitrogenous base.
As long as cells can maintain themselves in a range of normal function, they exist in a state of _____________.
Cells maintain themselves in a state of homeostasis by elaborating a vast array of _______ and _________ that facilitate adaption to physiologic and pathologic stress.
____________ is the branch of medicine devoted to the study and understanding of disease.
Every clinical disease has its inception with some kind of _____________ injury or malfunction that is ultimately expressed at the __________level of cellular function.
All cells have the ability to produce______ and maintain normal function by producing __________ and _______ to adapt against physiologic and pathologic stress.
energy, proteins, macromolecules
Changes in cellular structure can usually be seen under the microscope and can be divided into two broad catagories:
_____________ and _____________.
____________is the hallmark of reversible damage to a cell.
The monitoring of and response to tissue damage is called the
clinical features are: rubor, calor, tumor, dolor
- *To remember rubor, calor, tumor, dolar I use the pnemonic: Real Clinicians Don't Take Five The five cardinal signs for inflammation (the fifth sign is loss of function )
- redness, heat, swelling, and pain
Also called inflammatory mediators, these substances which are byproducts of tissue injury,play a role in nerve stimulation and pain.
A complex immunochemical reaction initiated by normal cells that have been injured or damaged.
the inflammatory response
Common causes of tissue damage(which lead to the inflammatory response):
hypoxia, microbial infections, IONIZING RADIATION, chemicals,allergic or immune reactions(e.g. rheumatoid arthritis), and CANCER
The most common cause of tissue damage is________.
vascular occlusive disease causes local hypoxia. The RT sees generalized hypoxia as a resultof cardiopulmonary compromise secondary to acute compression of the superior vena cava caused by lung ca. This is a life threatening emergency.
- Generelized hypoxia due to carbon monoxide or cyanide poisoning DO NOT involve inflammation.
What is the most obvious and common cause of tissue damage seen by the radiation therapist?
*for you over thinkers(Jeanine :) ) this is not a trick question
_____________is the accidental leakage of intravenous drugs into the tissue surrounding the venipuncture, either through a weak portion of the vein or because the needle punctured the vein and the infusion goes directly into the surrounding tissue. It is the cause of an intense local inflammatory response.
What are the six important causes of cell damage?
radiation,hypoxia,chemicals,microorganisms,immunological reactions, neoplasms
The six important causes of cell damage:radiation,hypoxia,chemicals,microorgamisms,immonological reactions, and neoplasms all eventually lead to the formation of ___________ ___________ which are destructive to nucleic acids and other vital cellular components.
Cancer is the ___________ leading cause of death in the United States.
More than_________different kinds of cancers have been recognized and catagorized
Although______tumors are often large they do not invade surrounding tissue or spread distantly to produce metastases.
____________areise from epithelial tissue.
__________arise from in connective tissue.
Well differentiated tumors tend to grow more ______
than poorly differentiated ones.
The speed of growth correlates roughly to the degree of diferentiation of the cells.
__________tend to metastasize via lymphatic channels and
_____________tend metastasize through blood vessel invasion.
The functionds of epithelial cells are________,__________,
protective, absorptive, secretory
*epithelial cell cover surfaces(protect), line cavities like the colon(absorb), or form glands (which secrete)
Are there more carcinomas or sarcomas?
Cancer cells that dispay no diferentiation are considered
anaplastic tumors are more aggresive
_________describes the greater variabiliy in size and shape of undiferentiated tumor cells.
deeply stained nuclei
Percival Pott is associated with work done the mid 18th century with what kind of cancer with who?
scrotum cancer, chimney sweeps
*important because it was the first identification of a chemical carcinogenesis
What did Yamagiwa and Ichikawa confirm?
They confirmed an association between cancer and byproducts of hydrocarbon combustion .
- They induced skin cancer on lab animals with chronic applications of coal tar.
- 1775 Percival Pott>Scrotum Cancer/soot
- 1915 Yamagiwa and Ichikawa>Skin cancer/coal tar
Most chemical carcinogens arecompounds containing atoms deficient in _________.
Most chemical carcinogens require metabolic activation to assume carcinogenic statures.
Most chemical carcinogens require metabolic activation to assume carcinogenic statures. A few compounds, such as ____________, can directly induce neoplasia.
chemotherapeutic alkylating agents
Carcinogens that produces mutations that provokes stategic damage sufficient to have potential neoplastic consequences are called ______________.
The time between the initiating event that caused the cancer (exposure to a carcinogen an subsequent strategic damage) and the clinical apperance of a tumor is called the _________.
*although there is a clear association between a carcinogen and cancer, because a specific carcinogen usually does not cause everyone to get cancer(at least not at the same doses(take cigarette smoking,for example)-the initiation of cancer in each person is a complex mix of factors(genetics, lifestlye, etc.)
Programmed cell death is called___________ and* may *may not occur as it does normally during the latent period.
*choose 1. may or 2. may not
apoptosis, may not
During the latent period , _______ _________ may become
A group of chemicals called ________have the effect of hastening and intensifying abnormal growth characteristics and are set in motion by the _________.
___________ are small packets of genetic material(DNA or RNA) enclosed in capsules.
The genetic complement found in the chromosome of a given organism is the________.
Genes of viral derivation that have become incorporated into chromosomes of the host cell and are concerned with the regulation of cell growth are called _____ _______.
What are the four common viruses implicated in human neoplasia?
- EBV(Epstein-Barr): Burkitt's lymphoma, immunoblastic lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal cancers
- HPV:(Human Papillomavirus) uterine cervical cancer & othersHTLV-1: (The Human T-lymphotropic virus Type I): is a human RNA retrovirus that is known to cause a type of cancer, referred to as adult T-cellleukemia and lymphoma, and a demyelinating disease called HTLV-I associated myelopathy/Tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).
- HBV: (Hepatitis B): hepatocellular carcinoma
______________are the building blocks of life.
Mitosis usually occurs in about______hrs.
*In chapter 3 but probably will be on Scott's test
I would rather cover the entire Chapter to be safe
_______ _______ is a specification that describes the apparent aggressiveness of the cancer as determined by cytological and morphological criteria.
Which are more aggressive, low grade or high grade tumors?
Explain the three different kinds of biopsies and give specific examples of each one.
- 1.A PAP smear is an example of Exfoliative cytology.
- Single cells are obtained from various surfaces or secretion shed by the tumor(or area being biopsied) and are then studied by the pathologist,
- 2. A Fine -needle aspiration: This is used for many differnent kinds of tumors: e.g. breast, thyroid-a thin needle is inserted into the lump a sample of cells or fluid is removed for study by the pathologist.3. Open biopsy: this is the most invasive and can be either incisional(where part of the tumor is taken out) excisional(where the whole thing is removed)
*trick for remembering incisional & excisional biopsies
INCISIONAL part of the tumor is still IN.
- EXCISIONAL the tumor has EXITED