by mid-elementary school, children use strategies consistently and performance improves
involves thinking out a sequence of acts ahead of time and allocating attention accordingly to reach a goal
the abilities of inhibition, effortfully holding and operating on information in working memorey, and flexibility adjusting attention to changes in task requirements
repeating information to yourself
grouping related items
memory strategy of older children
grouping items based on common properties
ex: clothing, body parts, food etc.
slightly older children sometimes produce strategies, but not consistenly
they fail to control, or execute strategies effectively
preschoolers rarely engage in attentional strategies
they fail to produce strategies when they could be helpful
young elementary school children execute strategies consistently
their performance either does not improve or improves less than that of older children
involves creating a relationship, or shared meaning, between two or more pieces of information that do not belong to the same category
how to we retrieve information
noticing that a stimulus is identical or similar to one previously experienced
generating a mental representation of an absent stimulus
recoding information while it is in the system or being retrieved
when we first encode information, we reconstruct it automatically
we create a vague, fuzzy version (gist), which preserves essential meaning without details and is especially useful for reasoning
our vast, taxonomically organized and hierarchically structures general knowledge system
must grow out of the young child's episodic memory
of young child
memory for many personally experienced events
genderal descriptions of what occurs and when it occurs in a particular situation
representations of one-time events that are long-lasting because they are imbued with personal meaning
the inability to remember events that happened to us before age three
the process of continually monitoring progress toward a goal, checking outcomes, and redirecting unsuccessful efforts
what makes a good reader?
being able to...
percieve single letters and letter combinations
translate them into speech sounds
recognize visual appearance of common words
hold chunks of text in working memory while interpreting their meaning
combine meanings of various parts of a text passage into an understandable whole
do these tasks automatically
argued that reading should be taught in a way that parallels natural language learning
children should be exposed to text in its complete form so they can appreciate the communicative function of it
believing that children should first be coached in phonics
after mastering this skill, they should get complex reading material
skills to be good at math
grasp the concept of ordinality (order relationships between quantities)
Asian countries and teaching math
use of metric system
consistent structure of number words
more digits can be held in working memory at once which also increses the speed of thinking
children learn to use the number 5 as an anchor
spend more time exploring math concepts and strategies and less to drill and repetition
high school students score higher in math achievement
Hearing what someone has said is an example of:
Why, according to the store model (Atkinson and Shiffrin), do we sometimes have problems with retrieval of information from the long-term memory store?
there is so much input stored there
According to the store model (Atkinson and Shiffrin), the first component of the store model is:
Automatization is an aspect of the:
An aspect of information-processing models that may change with age is:
the "hardware" or absolute size of its processing units
the "software" or the extent and effectiveness of strategy use
Case's non-Piagetian theory accepts Piaget's stages but:
views change within each, as well as movement from one stage to the next, due to increases in information-processing capacity
What is the reason for movement form one stage to the next, according to Case?
increases in information processing capacity
Connectionism holds that the _____ of the artificial neural networks is responsible for encoding a given task.
According to Siegler, ______ consider both weith and distance when solving the problem of the balanced scale.
Which information-processing approach to development comes from an evolutionary perspective of cognitive development?
model of strategy approach
Young children that first start using the rehearsal strategy for storing information are typically not very adept at it because of ______ deficiencies.
The preschool child's minimal use of rehearsal and the young elementary school child's less effective execution of it reveal that:
becoming skilled at this strategy is a gradual process
Jacob looks at a collection of paintings. Later he looks at another collection of paintings that has some new ones mixed in. He identifies the ones that he looked at previously. He is retrieving information using the ___________ memory strategy.
Josef tells a long and complex story to Chris. Chris tells the story to Christine the next day and it is a little different. Chris is retrieving information using the _______ memory strategy.
Our vast, intricately organized knowledge system, known as _________, grows out of the young child's _________, or memory for many personally experienced events.
enable us to predict the future
help us organize our everyday lives
help us to interpret what is happening to us
Metacognition refers to:
an awareness and understanding of our own cognitive processes
An argument for using a whole-language approach when learning/teaching to read is that:
reading should be taught in a way that parallels natural language learning
Cross-cultural evidence suggests that basic arithmetic knowledge:
includes an understanding of ordinality and cardinality
emerges during the early childhood years
Siegler believed that:
children profic most from instruciton that responds to specific inadequacies in the current knowledge