PSYC 320 Lesson 8

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  1. encoded
    information that is taken in by the system and retained in symbolic form
  2. recoding
    revising information's symbolic structure into a more effective representation
  3. decoding
    interpretting information's meaning by comparing and combining it with other information in the system
  4. store model
    • computer-like view of the cognitive system
    • focuses on general units of cognitive functioning
  5. connectionism
    • computer based model
    • part and parcel of cognitive neuroscientists' quest to understand what might be happening in the brain as cognition changes
  6. sensory register
    • first component of store model
    • sights and sounds are represented directly and stored briefly
  7. working/short term memory
    • second component of store model
    • actively apply mental strategies as we "work" on a limited amount of information
  8. strategies to increase memory
    • attending to information carefully
    • taking notes
    • repeating information
    • grouping pieces of information together
  9. metacognition
    awareness and understanding of thought
  10. long term memory
    • information transfers here when it is held in working memory for long period of time
    • permanent knowledge base
    • retrieval can be problematic
    • information is categorized by contents
  11. implications of store model
    suggests two broad aspects of the cognitive system increase with age - the basic capacity of its stores; the extent and effectiveness of strategy use
  12. connectionist models
    • artificial neural network model
    • simulate the workings of the most basic information-processing units (neurons and their connections)
    • reveal how strengthening of simple connections between neurons promotes development of brain functioning
    • consists of thousands of simple processing units organized into layers
  13. neo-Piagetian theory
    • Robbie Case
    • accepts Piaget's stages
    • attributes change within each stage, and movement from one stage to the next
  14. three factors contribute to cognitive change
    • brain development
    • practice with schemes and automization
    • formation of central conceptual structures
  15. central conceptual structures
    networks of concepts and relations that permit people to think about a wide range of situations in more advanced ways
  16. model of strategy choice
    • Robert Siegler
    • effort to apply an evolutionary perspective to children's cognition
    • some strategies are selected, become more frequent, and "survive"
    • some strategies become less frequent and "die off"
    • children's mental strategies display variation and selection, yielding adaptive problem-solving techniques
  17. effective strategy use
    by mid-elementary school, children use strategies consistently and performance improves
  18. planning
    involves thinking out a sequence of acts ahead of time and allocating attention accordingly to reach a goal
  19. cognitive control
    the abilities of inhibition, effortfully holding and operating on information in working memorey, and flexibility adjusting attention to changes in task requirements
  20. rehearsal
    • memory strategy
    • repeating information to yourself
  21. organization
    • memory strategy
    • grouping related items
  22. taxonomic categories
    • memory strategy of older children
    • grouping items based on common properties
    • ex: clothing, body parts, food etc.
  23. control deficiency
    • slightly older children sometimes produce strategies, but not consistenly
    • they fail to control, or execute strategies effectively
  24. production deficiency
    • preschoolers rarely engage in attentional strategies
    • they fail to produce strategies when they could be helpful
  25. utilization deficiency
    • young elementary school children execute strategies consistently
    • their performance either does not improve or improves less than that of older children
  26. elaboration
    involves creating a relationship, or shared meaning, between two or more pieces of information that do not belong to the same category
  27. how to we retrieve information
    • recognition
    • recall
    • reconstruction
  28. recognition
    noticing that a stimulus is identical or similar to one previously experienced
  29. recall
    generating a mental representation of an absent stimulus
  30. reconstruction
    recoding information while it is in the system or being retrieved
  31. fuzzy-trace theory
    • when we first encode information, we reconstruct it automatically
    • we create a vague, fuzzy version (gist), which preserves essential meaning without details and is especially useful for reasoning
  32. semantic memory
    • our vast, taxonomically organized and hierarchically structures general knowledge system
    • must grow out of the young child's episodic memory
  33. episodic memory
    • of young child
    • memory for many personally experienced events
  34. scripts
    genderal descriptions of what occurs and when it occurs in a particular situation
  35. autobiographical memory
    representations of one-time events that are long-lasting because they are imbued with personal meaning
  36. infantile amnesia
    the inability to remember events that happened to us before age three
  37. self-regulation
    the process of continually monitoring progress toward a goal, checking outcomes, and redirecting unsuccessful efforts
  38. what makes a good reader?
    • being able to...
    • percieve single letters and letter combinations
    • translate them into speech sounds
    • recognize visual appearance of common words
    • hold chunks of text in working memory while interpreting their meaning
    • combine meanings of various parts of a text passage into an understandable whole
    • do these tasks automatically
  39. whole-language approach
    • argued that reading should be taught in a way that parallels natural language learning
    • children should be exposed to text in its complete form so they can appreciate the communicative function of it
  40. phonics approach
    • believing that children should first be coached in phonics
    • after mastering this skill, they should get complex reading material
  41. skills to be good at math
    grasp the concept of ordinality (order relationships between quantities)
  42. Asian countries and teaching math
    • use of metric system
    • consistent structure of number words
    • more digits can be held in working memory at once which also increses the speed of thinking
    • children learn to use the number 5 as an anchor
    • spend more time exploring math concepts and strategies and less to drill and repetition
    • high school students score higher in math achievement
  43. Hearing what someone has said is an example of:
  44. Why, according to the store model (Atkinson and Shiffrin), do we sometimes have problems with retrieval of information from the long-term memory store?
    there is so much input stored there
  45. According to the store model (Atkinson and Shiffrin), the first component of the store model is:
    sensory register
  46. Automatization is an aspect of the:
    levels-of-processing model
  47. An aspect of information-processing models that may change with age is:
    • the "hardware" or absolute size of its processing units
    • the "software" or the extent and effectiveness of strategy use
  48. Case's non-Piagetian theory accepts Piaget's stages but:
    views change within each, as well as movement from one stage to the next, due to increases in information-processing capacity
  49. What is the reason for movement form one stage to the next, according to Case?
    increases in information processing capacity
  50. Connectionism holds that the _____ of the artificial neural networks is responsible for encoding a given task.
    input layer
  51. According to Siegler, ______ consider both weith and distance when solving the problem of the balanced scale.
  52. Which information-processing approach to development comes from an evolutionary perspective of cognitive development?
    model of strategy approach
  53. Young children that first start using the rehearsal strategy for storing information are typically not very adept at it because of ______ deficiencies.
    • production
    • control
    • utilization
  54. The preschool child's minimal use of rehearsal and the young elementary school child's less effective execution of it reveal that:
    becoming skilled at this strategy is a gradual process
  55. Jacob looks at a collection of paintings. Later he looks at another collection of paintings that has some new ones mixed in. He identifies the ones that he looked at previously. He is retrieving information using the ___________ memory strategy.
  56. Josef tells a long and complex story to Chris. Chris tells the story to Christine the next day and it is a little different. Chris is retrieving information using the _______ memory strategy.
  57. Our vast, intricately organized knowledge system, known as _________, grows out of the young child's _________, or memory for many personally experienced events.
    • semantic memory
    • episodic memory
  58. Memory scripts...
    • enable us to predict the future
    • help us organize our everyday lives
    • help us to interpret what is happening to us
  59. Metacognition refers to:
    an awareness and understanding of our own cognitive processes
  60. An argument for using a whole-language approach when learning/teaching to read is that:
    reading should be taught in a way that parallels natural language learning
  61. Cross-cultural evidence suggests that basic arithmetic knowledge:
    • includes an understanding of ordinality and cardinality
    • emerges during the early childhood years
    • is universal
  62. Siegler believed that:
    children profic most from instruciton that responds to specific inadequacies in the current knowledge
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PSYC 320 Lesson 8
2012-09-25 03:17:46
PSYC 320 Lesson

PSYC 320 Lesson 8
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