Avian Hematology

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Avian Hematology
2012-09-24 21:42:12
Lab Tech ll

Lab Tech ll
Show Answers:

  1. What is the purpose of sampling bird blood?
    • aid to diagnosis
    • evaluate patient condition
    • evaluate treatment
    • prognostic indicator
    • environmental monitoring
  2. Why do we analyze avian blood to help aid with diagnosis?
    birds hide signs until it is too late
  3. How much blood can you take from a blood?
    1% of body weight
  4. What kind of syringe do we usually use to collect avian blood?
    heparinized tb syringe with 25 gauge 5/8" needle
  5. Can we use EDTA to collect avain blood?
  6. Do some people not use anticoagulants?
    yes, but birds bleed slowly so it may clot before being able to get all the blood in the tube
  7. Should we pull the birds feather to get a better view of the vein?
    no, it is painful
  8. When using an anticoagulant to collect avian blood, what do we need to make sure we remember?
    do not over dilute with anticoagulant
  9. What are the different collection sites for birds?
    • jugular vein
    • cutaneous ulnar vein
    • medial metatarsal vein
    • toenail
  10. Which collection site is the easiest when collecting avian blood?
    cutaneous ulnar vein
  11. What is another name for a cutaneous ulnar vein?
    wing vein
  12. Is the medial metatarsal vein always available for collecting avian blood?
    • no
    • good for long legged birds
  13. What is a common problem with collecting blood in birds?
    • hematomas
    • must hold the vein off immediately after collection
  14. How do we collect the blood from an ulnar vein?
    must pull plunger immediately after getting in the vein (have hand on the plunger before even getting in the vein) - must hold the vein off after collection
  15. Why don't some doctors use the ulnar vein?
    because they want to save it for giving IV fluids
  16. Why do we need to clean the toe nail before using it to collect blood?
    birds will sometimes urinate on their toes
  17. What can the PCV tell us with avian hematology?
    • increases with dehydration
    • decreases with anemia
  18. When is anemia common with birds?
    with birds who do not eat
  19. What do we need to note with the plasma color?
    • lipemia
    • hemolysis
    • icterus
  20. What is the normal range for a PCV in avians?
    35 - 55%
  21. In addition to testing the PCV and noting the plasma color, what else do we need to look at in the hematocrit tube?
    • the size of the buffy coat
    • large buffy coat indicates leukocytosis
  22. Is a true icterus rare in birds?
  23. If a bird is truly icteric then what is it caused by?
    liver disease
  24. Do birds have bilirubin?
  25. Instead of bilirubin, what do birds have and why?
    biliverdin (green color) due to carotenoids (from plants and grain)
  26. What color do birds bruise?
  27. What is a hemolyzed plasma color usually due to?
    how hard we have to pull on the plunger
  28. What is a lipemic plasma usually due to?
    post prandial
  29. Do we worry about lipemia in birds?  What kind of tests can it affect?
    • no, we want them to eat
    • chemical tests - cholesterol, glyserol, lipase
  30. What is the normal range for total soilds?
    3 - 6 gm/dl
  31. When the total solid is at ____ the prognosis is poor.
    1.5 gm/dl
  32. What is a new way to make a blood smear?
    spread with a 50 mm coverslip - drop it on top and pull it apart
  33. How many dips do we do in the diff quik for avian hematology?
    15 dips
  34. All mature bird blood cells are _____.
  35. What do avian erythrocytes look like?
    • elliptical (oval)
    • pink cytoplasm
    • elongated nucleus with clumpy chromatin
  36. What is a heterophil?
    similar to a neutrophil - functions like a neutrophil
  37. Do birds have neutrophils?
  38. What does a heterophil look like?
    red, rod-shaped granules
  39. What can heterophil granules resemble?
  40. What does a toxic heterophil look like?
    • bluish cytoplasm
    • vacuoles
    • dark blue granules
  41. What does a toxic heterophil usually indicate?
    a sick bird
  42. What does an avian eosinophil look like?
    bright red round granules
  43. Which WBC is the most common in birds?  2nd most common?
    • heterophil
    • eosinophil
  44. What does an avian basophil look like?
    dark blue granules
  45. Are avian basophils common?
  46. Are lymphocytes common in birds?
  47. What do avian lymphocytes look like?
    • round nucleus with clumpy chromatin
    • round cell
    • thin rim of blue cytoplasm
  48. What does an avian monocyte look like?
    • round to variably shaped cell
    • round to variably shaped nucleus
    • gray blue cytoplasm
    • cytoplasmic vacuoles
  49. Which avian WBC is the largest in size?
  50. When do we treat avian hemoparasites?
    more than 3 parasitic red cells/oif
  51. Which blood cell are parasites most commonly seen in in birds?
  52. What are the hemoparasites in RBCs?
    • plasmodium
    • hemoproteus
    • leukocytozoan
    • atoxoplasma
    • trypanosomes
    • microfilaria
  53. Which of the hemoparasites are the most common in avian blood?
    • plasmodium
    • hemoproteus
    • leukocytozoan
  54. Which hemoparasite causes malaria?
  55. Which hemoparasites are rare in avian hematology?
    • trypanosomes
    • microfilaria
  56. What causes plasmodium, hemoproteus, and leukocytozoan?
    biting insects
  57. What does plasmodium look like?
    • looks different in each RBC
    • dark staining spots in cytoplasm
  58. What does leukocytozoan look like?
    • pushes nucleus up against the side
    • may hang out of cell and make the cell look like it has wings
  59. What does hemoproteus look like?
    wraps around the neucleus and looks like a smiling cyclopse
  60. Where do we see atoxoplasma?
    in WBC
  61. Is atoxoplasma dangerous?
    yes, rare and deadly
  62. What are some extracellular parasites in avian blood?
    • trypanosoma
    • T. pycnonoti
    • microfilaria
  63. Do we use automated cell counters in avian hematology?
    no because of the nucleated RBCs
  64. What kind of manual cell counters do we use?
    • Nattpette
    • Avian leukopette
    • eopette
  65. How do we do an indirect WBC count?
    • count granulocytes
    • use differential results to estimate monocytes and lymphocytes
  66. How do we set up the hemocytometer in avian hematology?
    • use 25 ul well mixed blood
    • load into diluent
    • let sit for 5 minutes
    • load both sides of hemocytometer
    • let sit for 5 minutes
  67. The instructions on the avian leukopet tells us to let it sit for 10 minutes in the hemocytometer instead of the 5 minutes we do, why don't we let it sit for 10 minutes?
    because the RBC will pick up the stain and make it harder for us to count
  68. How do we count using the hemocytometer?
    • count all cells in all 9 primary squares on both sides
    • take 10% and add it to count
    • multiply by 16
    • get total granulocyte count
    • estimate mononuclear cells
  69. What are the mononuclear cells?
    monocytes and lymphocytes
  70. How do we calculate the mononuclear cell count?
    • use the differential
    • put # of lymphs and monos over granulocytes (drop the %)
    • multiply the fraction by the granulocyte count we got from the hemocytometer
    • add granulocyte count to mononuclear cell count

    • EXAMPLE:
    • H - 60, E - 8, L - 27, M - 5 (12,000 granulocytes from unopette)
    • 27 + 5 = 32, 60 + 8 = 68
    • 32/68 x 12,000 = 5, 647 (mononuclear cells)
    • 12,000 (granulocytes) + 5,647 (mononuclear cells) = 17,647
  71. How do we do a slide estimate?
    • must have even cell distribution
    • count number of leukocytes in 10 high power fields
    • divide by 10
    • multiply by 2,000
  72. Is glucose much higher in reptiles and avians than in mammals?
    yes (anything under 100 is a problem)
  73. Is diabetes a problem in birds?
  74. What do we test in the liver for birds and reptiles?
    • bile acids
    • sALT
    • sAST
    • if these are increased then there is liver disease
  75. What do we test in the kidneys for avian and reptiles?
    phosporous and uric acid
  76. If there are low levels of calcium for birds and reptiles then what do we look for?
    diet problem
  77. Increase in protein is due to what?
  78. Increase globulin is due to what?
  79. Decrease in protein is due to what?
    not eating

  80. What blood parasite is this

  81. What WBC is this?

  82. What WBC is this?

  83. What cells are these?

  84. What WBC is this?  What animal?
    flamingo heterophil

  85. What kind of WBC is this?  What animal is it from?
    hawk basophil

  86. Name the WBCs from left to right.  What animal?
    • eosinophil
    • basophil
    • monocyte
    • hawk

  87. What blood parasite is this?

  88. What WBC is this at the bottom?

  89. Name the WBCs and animal.
    • bottom:  eosinophil
    • top:  heterophil
    • Javan fish owl

  90. Name the WBCs.  What is wrong with the RBC?
    • top WBC:  heterophil
    • bottom 2 WBCs:  basophil
    • plasmodium

  91. Name the WBCs.
    heterophils and thrombocytes

  92. What is the blood parasite?

  93. What is the WBC in the middle?  At the bottom?
    • lymphocyte
    • thrombocyte

  94. What parasite is this?  What animal?
    • microfilaria
    • pigeon

  95. Name the WBC.  What animal?
    • heterophil
    • pigeon

  96. What blood parasite is this?

  97. What blood parasite is this?
    T. pycnonoti

  98. Name the WBCs from left to right
    • thrombocyte
    • monocyte
    • heterophils (2)

  99. What is this WBC?  What is wrong with it?
    toxic heterophil

  100. Name this blood parasite.
    Trypanosoma bouffardi