AP Psychology Unit 3B Vocabulary

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AP Psychology Unit 3B Vocabulary
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AP Psychology Unit 3B Vocabulary
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AP Psychology Unit 3B Vocabulary
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  1. Tissue destruction; a brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue.
    Lesion
  2. An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrods placed on the scalp.
    Encephalogram
  3. A series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body.
    CT scan (Also called CAT scan).
  4. A visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain perfoms a given task.
    PET scan
  5. A technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer generated images of soft tissue. These scans show brain anatomy.
    MRI
  6. A technique for revealing bloodflow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. These scans show brain function.
    fMRI
  7. The oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; this structure is responsible for automatic survival function.
    Brainstem
  8. The base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing.
    Medulla
  9. A nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal.
    Reticular formation
  10. The brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.
    Thalamus
  11. The "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement ouput and balance.
    Cerebellum
  12. Doughnut-shaped neural system (including the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus) located below the "cerebral hemispheres", associated with emotions and drives.
    Limbic system
  13. Two lima bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion.
    Amygdala
  14. A neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitory gland, and is linked to emotion and reward.
    Hypothalamus
  15. The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information processing center.
    Cerebral cortex
  16. Cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons.
    Glial cells (glia)
  17. Portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments.
    Frontal lobes
  18. Portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position.
    Parietal lobes
  19. Portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes areas that receive information from the visual fields.
    Occipital lobes
  20. Portion of the cerebral cortex lying above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear.
    Temporal lobes
  21. An area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements.
    Motor cortex
  22. Area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations.
    Sensory cortex
  23. Areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking.
    Association areas
  24. Impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding).
    Aphasia
  25. Controls language experession-an area, usually in the left frontal lobe, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech.
    Broca's Area
  26. Controls language reception-a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe.
    Wernicke's Area
  27. The brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience.
    Plasticity
  28. The formation of new neurons.
    Neurogenesis
  29. The large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.
    Corpus callosum
  30. A condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting the fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) connecting them.
    Split brain
  31. Our awareness of ourselves and our environment.
    Consciousness
  32. The interdisciplinary stidy of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).
    Cognitive neuroscience
  33. The principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks.
    Dual processing
  34. Breathing and heartbeat are controlled by the...
    Medulla.
  35. Perception, thinking, and language can operate at conscious, deliberate levels and also at unconscious, automatic levels. This best describes...
    Dual processing.
  36. A PET scan best allows researchers to determine...
    The functions of various brain regions.
  37. Damage to the hippocampus would result in...
    Memory problems.
  38. Surgical stimulation of the sensory cortex might result in the false sensation...
    That someone is tickling you.
  39. Awareness of ourselves and our environment best describes...
    Consciousness.
  40. The link between the nervous system and the endocrine system is maintained by the...
    Hypothalamus.
  41. A researcher interested in determining the size of a particular area of the brain would be most likely to use a(n)...
    MRI.
  42. The support cells that provide nourishment and help the brain in numerous other ways are called...
    Glial cells.
  43. Which of the following is a task more likely to be accomplished by the right hemisphere of the brain?
    Recognizing a friend's face.
  44. If you flashed a picture of a spoon to the left visual field of a person whose corpus calllosum had been severed (so it was transmitted to her right hemishpere), she would...
    Be able to draw a spoon with her left hand but would not be able to say she had seen a spoon.
  45. Brain plasticity refers to the...
    Ability of brain tissue to take on new functions.
  46. When Heinrich Kluver and neurosuregeon Paul Bucy surgically lesioned the amygdala of a rhesus monkey's brain, the monkey...
    Became less aggressive.
  47. The reward deficiency syndrome argues that addictive disorders may be partially explained by genetic flaws in the...
    Limbic system.
  48. An individual experiences brain damage that produces a coma. Which part of the brain was probably damaged?
    Reticular formation.
  49. What is the oldest part of the brain, and is responsible for automatic survival functions?
    The brainstem.
  50. Controls heartbeat and breathing.
    Medulla
  51. Just above the medulla, helps coordinate movements.
  52. Filters incoming stimuli and relays important information to other areas of the brain. Affects arousal.
    Reticular formation
  53. Helps us judge time, modulate our emtions, and discriminate sounds and textures; also coordinates voluntray movement. Coordinates muscle movement and helps process sensory information.
    Cerebellum
  54. The two halves of the brain.
    Cerebral hemispheres
  55. What is at the border between the brain's older parts and the cerebral hemishperes-the two halves of the brain?
    The limbic system.
  56. What system is associated with emotion, memory, and drives?
    The limbic system.
  57. One limbic system component, processes memory.
    Hippocampus
  58. Influence aggression and fear.
    Amygdala
  59. Chain of command governing bodily maintenance. Involved in various bodily maintenance functions, pleasurable rewards, and the control of the hormonal system.
    Hypothalamus
  60. Some researchers believe that addictive disorders, such as alcohol dependence, drug abuse, and binge eating, may stem from what?
    Reward deficiency syndrome
  61. A genetically disposed deficiency in the natural brain systems for pleasure and well-being that leads people to crave whatever provides that missing pleasure or relieves negative feelings.
    Reward deficiency syndrome
  62. The two large hemispheres that contribute 85 percent of the brain's weight.
    Cerebrum
  63. Support, nourish, and protect neurons.
    Glial cells
  64. Stepping back to consider the whole cortex, each hemisphere is divided into four _____, geographic subdivisions separated by prominent ________, or folds.
    Lobes, fissures.
  65. Invovled in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments.
    Frontal lobes
  66. Receives sensory input for touch and body position.
    Parietal lobes
  67. Receives information from the visual fields.
    Occipital lobes
  68. Receiving information primarily from the opposite ear.
    Temporal lobes
  69. Moreover, stimulating parts of this region in the left or right hemisphere caused movements of specific body parts on...
    the opposite side of the body.
  70. Controls voluntary movements.
    Motor cortex
  71. Registers and processes body touch and movement sensations.
    Sensory cortex
  72. Involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking.
    Association areas
  73. Judgment, planning, processing (personality).
    Association areas (frontal lobes).
  74. Mathematician and spatial reasoning.
    Association areas (parietal lobes)
  75. When you read aloud, the words..
    • (1) Register in your visual area
    • (2) Are relayed to a second brain area, the angular gyrus, which transforms the words into an auditroy code that
    • (3) Is received and understood in the nearby Wernicke's area, and
    • (4) Is sent to the Broca's area, which
    • (5) Controls the motor cortex as it creates the pronounced word.
  76. Aims to rewire brains by restraining a fully functioning limb and forcings use of the "bad hand" or the uncooperative leg.
    Constraint-induced therapy
  77. Visual area of right hemisphere.
    Left visual field
  78. Visual area of left hemisphere.
    Right visual field
  79. Later units will explore our hidden mind at work in research on unconcious _______, on concious (________) and unconcious (_______) memories, on concious versus automatic prejudices, and on the out-of-sight processing that enables sudden insights and creative moments.
    Priming, explicit, implicit.
  80. Enables us "to create the mental furniture that allows us to think about the world"-to recognize things and to plan future actions.
    Visual perception track
  81. Gudies our moment-to-moment actions.
    Visual action track

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