hematology

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yangd88
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17315
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hematology
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2010-05-03 08:34:56
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hematology
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hematology exam 3
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  1. the total amount of blood in circulation (sum of plasma and RBC volume)
    total blood volume
  2. functional inability of the blood to supply tissue with adequate oxygen
    anemia
  3. excess blood volume--> increase total blood volume
    hypervolemia
  4. abnormally decreased total blood volume-more common then hyper.
    Hypovolemia
  5. M.C.V.
    mean corpuscular volume
  6. mean corpuscular Hgb
    Tells us how many Hgb/cell on average
    MCH
  7. corpuscular HgB concentraton
    Measure of weight to volume, is a relative concept.
    does the cell count contain the amount of HgB for its volume.
    MCHC
  8. A quantitative increase in circulationg RBC’s. Synonym= polycythemia vera:
    increase in circulating RBS’s with an elevated Hct. Men > 52% and women> 47%.
    Erythrocytosis
  9. red cell mass increase and is associated with a normal total volume.
    Absolute erythrocytosis
  10. decrease in total blood volume, normal red cell volume, decreased plasma volume.
    Relative erythrocytosis
  11. Microcytic hypochromic
    small and pale
  12. Macrocytic normochromic
    large and normal color
  13. describe anemia associated with defective DNA synthesis
    and abnormal red cell maturation in BM.
    Megaloblastic anemia
  14. failure of teh stomach to secret intrinsic factors
    Permicious anemia
  15. fish tapeworm competes very efficiently for B12.
    Diphyllobothrium latum
  16. result of increase or decreased synthesis of alpha or beta chains
    intracorpuscular defect from abnormal O2 dissociation
  17. decrease in formation of beta chains:
    decreased formation of HbA.
  18. decrease in formation of alpha chains
    decreased HbA, HbA2 & gower II.
  19. thalassemia minor
    heterozygotes
  20. thalassemia major
    homozygotes
  21. beta thalassemia major.
    Cooley’s anemia
  22. Symptoms= severe hypochromic
    anemia, marked decrease in MCV & MCH, slight decrease in MCHC.

    Also see anisocytosis and
    poikilocytosis, microcytes, target cells, basophilic stippling (pepper on egg
    white), polychromasia and nucleated rbcs.
    Cooley's Anemia
  23. process by which neutrophils leave the blood for tissues and body cavities via endothelial cell junctions.
    diapedesis
  24. large bluish bodies
    dohle bodies
  25. Are the most important leukocytes
    in cellular defense against infection; are the most active, most effective at
    killing bacteria via phagocytosis.
    neutrophils
  26. abnormally
    rigid neutrophils cannot move through endothelial cell pores and have abnormally
    large azurophilic granules.
    chediak-higashi
  27. leukocytes don’t respond to inflammatory signals.
    lazy leukocyte syndrome
  28. process of cell locomotion that shares many metabolic requirements with
    chemotaxis.
    ingestion
  29. can be congenital or acquired, with
    this deficiency, neutrophils and monocytes lack myeloperxidase in primary
    granules (eosinophils are normal)
    Myeloperoxidase deficiency
  30. In neutrophils—see normal
    engulfment, problem seems to an inability to mount a post phagocytic oxidative
    burst.
    Chronic Granulomatous disease
  31. Chediak-Higashi Syndrome
    • Patients have recurrent pyogenic
    • infections, presence of giant massive lysosomes in most granulocytes. Have
    • abnormalities of plts à bleeding problems. See impaired chemotaxis, delayed
    • killing of ingested bacteria b/c of the abnormal distribution and delivery of
    • lysosomal enzymes.
  32. syndrome characterized by immunologic alteration, with recurrent
    pyogenic infections and eczema
    Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome
  33. a circulating phagocyte, only play a major role in certain
    infections. These cells are motile, phagocytic, have a high concentration of
    lipase, effective against M. Tuberculosis (lipid envelope).
    monocytes
  34. responsible for synthesis of interferon, complement, pyrogenes &
    transferrin
    monocytes
  35. 1-2 micron light blue, seen in periphery of cytoplasm,
    composed of aggregated rough ER.
    Dohle-amato bodies
  36. Severe infection, fine to coarse,
    basophilic granulation in neutrophils. Hypersegmentsed neutrophiles, 5-6 or
    more lobes.
    toxic granulation
  37. An increase in all forms of WBCs, relatively unusual, usually this is due to hemoconcentration.
    balanced leukocytosis
  38. Can be due to infestation with parasites, particularly those that invade tissue.
    Can also see with allergic reactions/conditions
    And with scarlet fever, chronic myelogenous leukemia, hodgkin’s disease, some skin disease.
    eosinophilia
  39. Rarely seen, can be seen in association with polycythemia vera and chronic myelogenous leukemia.
    basophilia
  40. Chronic TB, brucellosis, typhus and in recovery phase of infections that cause lymphocytosis
    monocytosis
  41. a rare congenital condition, is an acute dz in which the white cell count is markedly reduced and neutropenia becomes pronounced—find defective maturation and proliferation of neutrophilic precurosors—symptoms: fever, chills, malaise, ulceration of oral nasal pharynx and throat.
    agranulocytosis
  42. Include a wide range of disorders from mild anemias to malignant disorders rapidly terminating in acute leukemia. It is now known that all MDS involve clonal abnormalities of hematopoietic pluripotential stem cells.
    Myelodysplastic syndromes
  43. = a group of primary hematologic disorders associated with abnormal division, maturation, and production of erythrocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, and plts; also reffered to as preleukemic myelodysplastic syndrome.
    MDS
  44. is a malignant disease of hematopoietic tissue.
    leukemia

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