Biology Vocab - Chapter 1

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GRIZELLE
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173156
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Biology Vocab - Chapter 1
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2012-09-26 20:38:22
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Biology - Chapter 1
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  1. cohesion (41)
    - the force that holds molecules of a single material together (41)
  2. adhesion (41)
    - the attractive force between two bodies of different substances that are in contact with each other (41)
  3. solution (42)
    - a homogeneous mixture throughout which two or more substances are uniformly dispersed (42)
  4. solute (42)
    - in a solution, the substance that dissolves in the solvent (42)
  5. solvent (42)
    - in a solution, the substance in which the solute dissolves (42)
  6. hydroxide ion (43)
    - OH- ion (43)
  7. hydronium ion (43)
    - an ion consisting of a proton combined with a molecule of water (43)

    - H3O+
  8. acid (43)
    - any compound that increases the number of hydronium ions when dissolved in water; acids turn blue litmus paper red and react with bases and some metals to form salts (43)
  9. base (44)
    - any compound that increases thenumber of hydroxide ions when dissolvedin water; bases turn red litmus paper blue and react with acids to formsalts (44)
  10. condensation reaction (53)
    - a chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine to produce water or another simple molecule (53)
  11. hydrolysis (53)
    - a chemical reaction between water and another substance to form two or more new substances; a reaction between water and a salt to create an acid or a base (53)
  12. carbohydrate (55)
    - any organic compound that is made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and that provides nutrients to the cells of living things (55)
  13. protein (56)
    - an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells (56)
  14. disaccharide (56)
    - sugar formed from two monosaccharides (56)
  15. polysaccharide (56)
    - one of the carbohydrates made up of long chains of simple sugars; polysaccharides include starch, cellulose, and glycogen (56)
  16. peptide bond (57)
    - the chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid (57)
  17. lipid (59)
    - a large, nonpolar organic molecule, including fats and steroids; lipids store energy and make up cell membranes (59)
  18. fatty acid (59)
    - an organic acid that is contained in lipids, such as fats or oils (59)
  19. triglyceride (175)
    - a lipid made of three fatty acid molecules and one glycerol molecule (175)
  20. nucleotide (60, 197)
    - in a nucleic-acid chain, a sub-unit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and nitrogenous base (60, 197)
  21. biology (5)
    - the study of life (5)
  22. cell (7, 69)
    - in biology, the smallest unit that can perform all life processes; cells are covered by a membrane and contain DNA and cytoplasm (7, 69)
  23. organ (7, 76, 909)
    - a collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body (7, 76, 909)
  24. tissue (7, 76)
    - a collection of specialized cells and cell products that perform a specific function (7, 76)
  25. organelle (7, 75)
    - one of the small bodies that are found in the cytoplasm of a cell and that are specialized to perform a specific function (7, 75)
  26. homeostasis (8)
    - the steady-state physiological condition of the body (8)
  27. metabolism (8, 36)
    - the sum of all chemical processes that occur in an organism (8, 36)
  28. gene (9)
    - a short segment of DNA that contains the instructions for a single trait (9)
  29. domain (11, 339)
    - in a modern taxonomic system,the broadest category; the category that contains kingdoms (11, 339)
  30. kingdom (11, 339)
    - in a traditional taxonomic system, the highest taxonomic category, which contains a group of similar phyla (11, 339)
  31. ecosystem (11, 362)
    - a community of organisms and their abiotic environment (11, 362)
  32. evolution (12, 297)
    - a heritable change in the characteristics within a population from one generation to the next; the development of new types of organisms from preexisting types of organisms over time (12, 297)
  33. natural selection (12, 300)
    - the process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully than less well adapted individuals do

    - a theory to explain the mechanism of evolution
  34. independent variable (15)
    - in an experiment, the factor that is deliberately manipulated, also called the manipulated variable (15)
  35. dependent variable (15)
    - in an experiment, the factor that changes as a result of manipulation of one or more other factors; also called a responding variable (15)
  36. theory (17)
    - an explanation for some phenomenon that is based on observation, experimentation, and reasoning; that is supported by a large quantity of evidence; and that does not conflict with any existing experimental results or observations (17)
  37. compound light microscope (21)
    - a microscope that uses light to illuminate a specimen that is then magnified by two lenses (21)
  38. scanning electron microscope (22)
    - a microscope that produces an enlarged, three dimensional image of an object by using a beam of electrons rather than light (abbreviation, SEM) (22)
  39. transmission electron microscope (22)
    - a microscope that transmits a beam of electrons through a very thin slice of specimen and that can magnify up to 200,000 times (abbreviation, TEM) (22)
  40. base unit (23)
    - one of the fundamental units of measurements that describe length, mass, time, and other quantities and from which other units are derived (23)

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