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- numerous, short, hair-like projections extending from the surface of a cell.
- Move material across the surface of the cell
- moves the entire cell
- In human body - only sperm cell have flagella.
- Eukaryotic flagella move in a whip-like manner
Cell wall in algae, plants, and some fungi
- All the cell walls of eukaryotes made of carobahydrates
Cell wall in most fungi
Cell wall in yeasts(unicellular fungi)
Glucan and manna
Cell wall in animal cells
No cell wall, just an outer sugar coating called Glycocalyx that attached to plasma membrane.
- Sticky carbohydrates - helps cells recognize one another and stick to one another
- protect the cell from digestion by enzymes.
- Also attracts a film of fluid to teh surface of many cells, ex. RBC's making them slippery to pass through narrow vessels.
- is a flexible, sturdy barrier
- structure - fluid mosaic model
- have phospholipid bilayer and proteins for transport
3 types of membrane proteins
- 1 - Integral proteins - extend across the entire lipid bilayer
- 2. Trasnmembrane proteis - extend from extracellular fluid to cytosol
- 3. Peripheral proteins - associate loosely with the polar heads ,on the inner or outer surface of membrane.
- Many membane proteins are glycoproteins.
- allow sodium potassium pass through
- single type of ion pass
move a polar substance from one side to another.
recognize and bind a specific molecule. The chemical binding to the receptor is called a ligand.
catalyze specific chemical reactions at the inside or outside surface of the cell.
glycoproteins and glycolipids, such as humand leukocyte antigens
- Simple and facilitated diffusion
- Activce transport ( no group transolcation)
- Vesicular transport
- vesicular transport - materials move into a cell
- viruses can take advantage of this mechanism to enter cells
- 2 Types
ingestion of extracellular fluid
material moving out of the cell via secretory vesicles
Structural framework of the cytoplasm
- intermediate filaments
movement of cytoplasm and nutrients throughtout the cell
- double membranre, have pores for trasport
- Nucleolus - in the center
- Chromotin - similar to cytoplasm
- Nucleolus and Chromotin have DNA in them the nucelolus is just darker(histones coil dna tightly)
extend from ne nuclear membrane that form flattened sace or tubules
- Continuous with the nuclear membrane and has ribosomes on outer surface
- Ribosomes - synthesize proteins The proteins than enter the space inside the ER for further processing and storing.
- extend from the rough ER, no ribosomes.
- Synthesizes fatty acids and steroids, tedosifies druges, stores calcium ion.
- Sites of protein synthesis
- Some on Rough ER
- some are free floating in cytoplasm.
- Also found in chloroplasts and mitochondria 70S
- Faces ER and reseives proteins from Smooth ER via vesicles. Contains dif. enzymes that modifies, sort and package protines. Release proteins via:
- Secretory vesicle - to outside the cell
- Storage visicle - proteins stoled in cytoplasm as lysosomes - distroyes debri.
- have digestive enzymes
- digests: worn-out organells, ceullar content, substances that where ate or drunk from the outside the cell.
- cavity in plants
- derived from the Golgi complex
- Structural support
- storage of bio molecules, ions
- store metabolic waist
involved in cell division and contain centrioles- mitotic spindle formation that pull chromosomes apart.
- Making ATP and Cell respiraion.
- Double membrane
- Inner membrane has folds called - cristae - increases surface area to make more ATP
- Inside inner mem. called matrix
- Devided independently from cell and has own DNA and 70S ribosomes-binary fission
- Only in algae and green plants
- pigment chlorophyll and enzymes ncessary for photosynthesis
- Self-replicate sing their own DNA and Contain 70S ribosomes - binary vission.
mitochndria and chloroplasts in eukaryotis are like bacteria that got somehow into the cell.