Card Set Information
numerous, short, hair-like projections extending from the surface of a cell.
Move material across the surface of the cell
moves the entire cell
In human body - only sperm cell have flagella.
Eukaryotic flagella move in a whip-like manner
Cell wall in algae, plants, and some fungi
All the cell walls of eukaryotes made of carobahydrates
Cell wall in most fungi
Cell wall in yeasts(unicellular fungi)
Glucan and manna
Cell wall in animal cells
No cell wall, just an outer sugar coating called
that attached to plasma membrane.
Sticky carbohydrates - helps cells recognize one another and stick to one another
protect the cell from digestion by enzymes.
Also attracts a film of fluid to teh surface of many cells, ex. RBC's making them slippery to pass through narrow vessels.
is a flexible, sturdy barrier
structure - fluid mosaic model
have phospholipid bilayer and proteins for transport
3 types of membrane proteins
- extend across the entire lipid bilayer
- extend from extracellular fluid to cytosol
- associate loosely with the polar heads ,on the inner or outer surface of membrane.
Many membane proteins are glycoproteins.
allow sodium potassium pass through
single type of ion pass
move a polar substance from one side to another.
recognize and bind a specific molecule. The chemical binding to the receptor is called a
catalyze specific chemical reactions at the inside or outside surface of the cell.
glycoproteins and glycolipids, such as humand leukocyte antigens
Simple and facilitated diffusion
Activce transport (
no group transolcation)
vesicular transport - materials move into a cell
viruses can take advantage of this mechanism to enter cells
ingestion of extracellular fluid
material moving out of the cell via
Structural framework of the cytoplasm
movement of cytoplasm and nutrients throughtout the cell
double membranre, have pores for trasport
- in the center
- similar to cytoplasm
Nucleolus and Chromotin have DNA in them the nucelolus is just darker(histones coil dna tightly)
extend from ne nuclear membrane that form flattened sace or tubules
Continuous with the nuclear membrane and has ribosomes on outer surface
Ribosomes - synthesize proteins
The proteins than enter the space inside the ER for further processing and storing.
extend from the rough ER, no ribosomes.
Synthesizes fatty acids and steroids, tedosifies druges, stores calcium ion.
Sites of protein synthesis
Some on Rough ER
some are free floating in cytoplasm.
Also found in chloroplasts and mitochondria 70S
Faces ER and reseives proteins from Smooth ER via vesicles. Contains dif. enzymes that modifies, sort and package protines. Release proteins via:
- to outside the cell
- proteins stoled in cytoplasm as
- distroyes debri.
have digestive enzymes
: worn-out organells, ceullar content, substances that where ate or drunk from the outside the cell.
cavity in plants
derived from the Golgi complex
storage of bio molecules, ions
store metabolic waist
involved in cell division and contain centrioles- mitotic spindle formation that pull chromosomes apart.
Making ATP and Cell respiraion.
Inner membrane has folds called - cristae - increases surface area to make more ATP
Inside inner mem. called matrix
Devided independently from cell and has own DNA and 70S ribosomes-binary fission
Only in algae and green plants
pigment chlorophyll and enzymes ncessary for photosynthesis
Self-replicate sing their own DNA and Contain 70S ribosomes - binary vission.
mitochndria and chloroplasts in eukaryotis are like bacteria that got somehow into the cell.