BioA 201 Midterm

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BioA 201 Midterm
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  1. Biological anthropology
    Study of the evolution of and biological variationin humans and their closest relatives, includingprimates and fossil ancestors.
  2. Adaptation
    • features oforganisms that:
    • help them surviveand reproduce
    • are createdthrough evolutionby natural selection
  3. Batesian mimicry
    • look like a more harmful model
    • red touches black youre okay jack, red touches yellow youre a dead fellow
  4. darwins 3 postulates
    • For adaptation to occur,there must be:
    • 1. Struggle for Existence
    • 2. Variation in Fitness
    • 3. Inheritance of Variation
  5. Darwin's influences
    • 1. HMS Beagle trip
    • 2. Thomas Malthus- That population grows exponentially even though resources are finite
    • 3.Charles Lyell- the earth is REALLY old
    • 4. John Baptiste Lamarck- giraffes with growing necks, WRONG
    • 5. Carolus Linnaeus- systema natural, the early tree of animals
    • 6. Eramus Darwin- his grandfather who believed in evolution
    • 7. Alfred Russell Wallace- other scientist who thought up natural selection and made him want to publish
  6. Types of natural selection
    • directional- changes average value, takes away one extreme
    • stabilizing- normalizes to equillibrium, takes away both extremes
    • disruptive- takes away the average trait, creates two high points of with side of average
  7. Complex adaptations
    • Complex adaptationsarise through theaccumulation of small changes
    • Improbable with justrandom variation
    • Probable whenchanges are additive
    • Intermediate stepsmust each be favoredby natural selection
  8. Convergent evolution
    • Convergence isevidence that complex adaptations don’t arise bychance.
    • Organisms share very similar adaptations, but not because of common lineage.
  9. Richard Dawkins
    Methinks it is like a weasel, simulator
  10. blending inheritance
    inherited traits were determined, randomly, from a range bounded by the homologous traits found in the parents
  11. Charles Darwin date
    1859 book was published
  12. Gregor mendel
    pea plants for genetics
  13. types of variation
    • continuous- bell-curve, you can have very little of extremes, but intermediate values in between each
    • dis or non continuous- only a specific thing
  14. segregation
    states that allele pairs separate or segregate during gamete formation, and randomly unite at fertilization.
  15. Independent assortment
    when parent has variation that is an equal chance of both to be passed
  16. Chromososmes
    • Chromosomes contain the genes that allow traits to be transmitted
    • Chromosomesreplicate themselvesin two ways… mitosis and meiosis
  17. Mitosis
    normal everyday cell division
  18. Meiosis
    replicate into haploid cells
  19. haploid
    half of what is needed for fertilization
  20. diploid
    both sets together, one haploid from mom and one from dad
  21. Gene
    Portion of chromosome that has arecognizable effect on phenotype.
  22. alelle
    Variety of genes with the sameeffect on an organism.
  23. Genotype
    Particular combination of genesand alleles an individual carries.
  24. Phenotype
    Observable characteristics of anorganism.
  25. homozygous
    Individual with two copies of thesame allele for the same gene.
  26. heterozygous
    Individual with copies of twodifferent alleles for the same gene.
  27. dominant
    Only 1 copy of allele to expressphenotype.
  28. recessive
    2 copies of allele to expressphenotype.
  29. Co-dominace
    that there are two dominant genes AB blood-type
  30. Phenogenesis
    Individuals genotypes cause phenotypes
  31. DNA
    • genes in nucleus of cells
    • RNA carries DNA’s message to its cytoplasm (outer area)
    • Structure of RNA, with paired bases, matches DNA
    • DNA, with RNA’s assistance,initiates and guides the construction of hundreds of proteins necessary for bodily growth, maintenance, and repair
  32. Adenine
    pairs with thymine, u in mrna
  33. thymine
    pairs with adenine
  34. guanine
    pairs with cytosine
  35. cytosine
    pairs on guanine
  36. mRNA
    • mRNA takes DNA’smessage fromnucleus to cytoplasm
    •  tRNA helps to stringtogether amino acidsin protein
    •  Similar structure toDNA but
    •  Thymine (T) substitutedfor uracil (U)
  37. Amino acids
    • Strings of amino acidsmake proteins
    •  Body is made of proteins
    •  Collagen
    •  Keratin.
  38. Mutation
    • Mutations
    •  Change the message of DNA
    •  Can change proteins Can change phenotypes
    •  Some mutations are deleterious
    •  Some mutations create new variability that natural selection can work with
    •  Other mutations are neutral
    • Mistakes in copying DNA
    •  Important for generatingand maintaining variation
  39. Introns
    gene sequences that don’t code for anything
  40. coding sequence
    like the ones that code for proteins
  41. regulatory sequences
    that determine condition under which genes express themselves
  42. genetic drift
    • Changes in populationgene frequencies byrandom chance
    •  Chances of occuringincreased by smallpopulation sizes
    •  Coin-flip experimentdemonstrates
  43. founder's effect
    • Genetic drift canoccur when a smallpopulation breaks offfrom a larger one
    •  Founder’s Effect
    •  High frequency of Oblood type amongnative populations ofN. and S. America isprobably from geneticdrift
  44. gene flow
    • Exchange of genetic material betweenpopulations of the same species
    • – Alleles spread through gene flow evenwhen selection not operating on the alleles
    • – Species
    • – group of related organismswhose members can interbreed to produceoffspring that live and reproduce
    • – Gene flow tends to prevent speciation
    • –formation of new species
  45. HW equillibrium
    • Freq aa= q^2
    • Freq AA= p^2
    • Freq Aa= 2pq
  46. Phenotypic plasticity
    • genes code for a range oftraits or behaviors
    •  Behavior – more variableand changing
    •  Morphology – little or nochange after developmentfor many traits, others arephenotypically plastic
  47. two levels of evolution
    • Microevolution –changes in population gene frequencies
    • Macroevolution- processes that lead todevelopment of newspecies and highertaxonomic levels
  48. Ernest Mayr
    • Species are populationsof organisms that caninterbreed and arereproductively isolatedfrom other organisms
    • • Gene flow inhibits theevolution of new species
  49. types of speciation
    • Allopatric- different
    • Parapatric– Strong selection for twodifferent phenotypes inneighboring habitats– Hybrid zones occur atboundaries of habitats– But hybrids are less viableso there is selectionagainst it
    • Sympatric– Strong selection evenwithout geographical seperation
  50. canalized
    no variation
  51. Adaptive radiation
    • When a single type oforganism diversifiesthrough macroevolution tofill a variety of niches
    • Occurs when there aremany empty niches
    • Rate of speciation relatedto number of open niches
  52. homologies
    similaritiesthat organisms share because of common ancestry
  53. ancestral/primative
    • Ancestral characteristicsare distinguished by:
    • – They appear earlier inorganismal development
    • – They appear earlier in thefossil record
    • – They are seen in outgroups
  54. analogies
    similar traits that arise if species experience similar selective forces and adapt to them in similar ways
  55. Jane goodall
    • Long-term study of wildchimpanzees
    • 􀁹 Started in 1960 (age 26)
  56. primate classification
    • Hands and feet:􀁹 Ancestral number offingers and toes􀁹 Hands are “prehensile”􀁹 Feet have “opposable” bigtoes􀁹 Nails instead of claws
    • 􀁼 Increased importanceof sight; decreasedimportance of smell􀁼
    • Vision:􀁹 Stereoscopic􀁹 Color􀁼
    • Brain:􀁹 Portion for sight(larger)􀁹 Portion for smell(smaller) -Brain to body size ratio exceedsother animals, even othermammals
    • 􀁼 Teeth:􀁹 Molars unspecialized􀁹 Max. per quadrant:􀁼 2 incisors􀁼 1 canine􀁼 3 premolars􀁼 3 molars
    • Parental investment much higher
    • Typically live in groups
  57. prosimians
    • 􀁼 Three infraorders:􀁹 Tarsiiformes􀁹 Lemuriformes􀁹 Lorisiformes
    • 􀁼 Found in Asia & Africa􀁹 Lemurs & galagos (Africa)􀁹 Lorises & tarsiers (Asia)
    • 􀁼 Mostly nocturnal –active at night
    • 􀁼 Vertical Clinging andLeaping (VCL)
  58. anthropoids
    􀁼 Monkeys, apes, & humans􀁼 Anthropoid suborder has twoinfraorders:􀁹 Platyrrhines – flat nosed, NewWorld monkeys􀁹 Catarrhines – sharp nosed, OldWorld monkeys and hominoids􀁼 Monkey vs Hominoid:Catarrhines􀁹 Monkeys have tails􀁹 Hominoids (apes & humans) do not
  59. new world monkey
    • 􀁼 Live in forests ofCentral and SouthAmerica
    • 􀁼 Two families:􀁹 Cebidae􀁼 Capuchins􀁼 Howler monkeys􀁼 Spider monkeys
    • 􀁹 Callitrichidae􀁼 Marmosets􀁼 Tamarins
    • 􀁼 Lack full colorvision
  60. dental formula
    • 􀁼 Dental formulameasures number ofteeth in one quadrant ofmouth􀁼 = # incisors: # canines: #premolars: # molars
    • 􀁼 2:1:3:3􀁹 Prosimians􀁹 New World Monkeys
    • 􀁼 2:1:2:3􀁹 Old World Monkeys􀁹 Apes􀁹 Humans
  61. bilophodont vs. Y5
    • 􀁼 Molars of Old-Worldmonkeys are bilophodont
    • 􀁹 Cusps form twoparallel ridges
    • 􀁼 Molars of hominoidshave a patterncalled “Y-5”
    • 􀁹 Five distinct cuspswith a Y shapethrough them
  62. Cathermal
    active anytime (intermittant)
  63. crespuscular
    active during dusk
  64. teritoriality
    maintainingexclusive access to fixedareas
  65. monogamy
    one male, one female
  66. polyandry
    one female, multimale
  67. polygyny
    one male, multi female
  68. Sara Hrdy
    Infanticide
  69. richard dawkins
    selfish genes
  70. inclusive fitness
    number of gene copiesto next generation
  71. hamiltons rule
    rB > C
  72. kin selection
    much like altruism but within family
  73. relatedness
    • sister/brother/mother/father .5
    • grandma/grandpa/half sibling .25
    • aunt/uncle/neice/nephew .25
    • cousin .125
  74. sexual selection
    Traits that increase one sex’sability to compete for matesof the opposite sex
  75. life history theory
    • All organisms facetradeoffs
    •  Energy constraints and theprinciple of allocation
  76. senescence
    All organisms, includingprimates, deterioratephysically with age
  77. antthropoids
    • Monkeys, apes, & humans
    • 􀁼 Anthropoid suborder has twoinfraorders:
    • 􀁹 Platyrrhines – flat nosed, NewWorld monkeys
    • 􀁹 Catarrhines – sharp nosed, OldWorld monkeys and hominoids
    • 􀁼 Monkey vs Hominoids
    • 􀁹 Monkeys have tails
    • 􀁹 Hominoids (apes & humans) do not
  78. modes of primate locomotion
    • VCL- verticle clinging and leaping
    • quadraped- all fours
    • knuckle-walkers
  79. founders effect
    a form of genetic drift that occurs when a small population of colonizes a new habitat and subsequently increases it number. random gentic changes due to small number of initial population are amplified by subsequent population growth
  80. derived trait
    a trait that was not present in ancestral traits
  81. Platyrrhines –
    flat nosed, NewWorld monkeys
  82. Catarrhines –
    sharp nosed, OldWorld monkeys and hominoids
  83. Cebidae􀁼
    • Capuchin
    • s􀁼 Howler monkeys
    • 􀁼 Spider monkeys
  84. Callitrichidae
  85. 􀁼 Marmosets
    􀁼 Tamarins
  86. cercopithecoids
    Baboons􀁹 Macaques􀁹 Langurs
  87. hominoids
    • Lesser Apes – gibbons,and siamangs
    • 􀁹 Great Apes – orangutans,chimps, gorillas
    • 􀁹 Humans

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