AN SC 200

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AN SC 200
2012-10-03 19:03:16
Structure Function lecture

Topic 2
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  1. What are the parts of the Hind Quarter (in order)
    •            (        FLANK     )
  2. What are the parts of the front quarter?
    • (RIB)       (        CHUCK           )
  3. What differentiates between low or high quality meat? Which is higher quality?
    • Amount of Cartilidge (thuff to eat)
    • -Hind quarter is higher quality because less cartilidge
    • -Front quarter is lower quality because more cartilidge
  4. What is another name for Psoas?
    Tenderloin- tender because it is not used by a cow for any movement. Found below the left transverte process and to the left of the body of vertebrae
  5. Why do you have to cook your ribs in hot water first then BBQ
    -Need slow moist heat to break down cartlidge
  6. What is the muscle called beside the spinous process?
    Longissimuss dorsi
  7. What are the five different vertebrae group names (posterior to anterior)
    • Coccygeal (a.k.a caudal) vertebrae
    • Sacral  vertebrae
    • Lumbar vertebrae
    • Thoracic vertebrae
    • Cervical vertebrae
  8. What happens to the sacral vertebrae?
    Sometimes the sacral vertevrae fuse together forming the sacrum
  9. What varies between species in terms of vertebrae?
    -different species have different numbers, size and vary in degree of fusion
  10. What is the endocrine system?
    • -moves hormones from one body part to another through blood
    • -fast electrical system
  11. What does PMU stand for/ used for?
    • -Pregnant Mare Urine
    • -Used to be collected for high levels of estrogen which was consequently used by women
  12. What are the two types of hormones? Differentiate between them
    • -Steroids-not species specific
    • tiny (17 to 21 long C molecules)
    • species have them in common ie. testosterone
    • -Proteins- more species specific
    • huge (>10 a.a and moooore)
    • depending on aa they are different between species
  13. Define: Hormone
    -chemical carried in blood from 1 organ in the body to another to have a distinctive effect
  14. Define Pheromone
    • A chemical substance produced and released into the environment by an animal, esp. a mammal or an insect, affecting the behavior or physiology of others of its species
    • (product produced from 1 hormone effects other animals)
  15. What are pheromones used for in pigs?
    -spray pheromones to see if the pigs are in standing heat or not
  16. Standing Heat
    -will pigs stand to be mated
  17. Which Hormones do these endocrine organs release?
    Adeno hypophysis (anterior pituitary)
    Adrenal Cortex
    Nuero-hypophysis (posterior pituitary)
    • Hypothalamus GnRH
    • Adeno hypophysis (anterior pituitary) LH, FSH, Prolactin, GH
    • Ovaries Progesterone, estrogen
    • Testis Testosterone
    • Adrenal Cortex Cortisol, Corticosterone
    • Nuero-hypophysis (posterior pituitary) Oxytocin
    • Pancrease Insulin, Glucagon
  18. What does cortisol do
    • - helps body prioritise what is important
    • ie if body is stressed reproductive system may shut down because it is of secondary importance ie scare chicken
  19. What does oxytocin do
    • -stimulates milk let down = fast result
    • -smooth muscle contractions for labour and delivery
  20. What does insulin do
    maintains blood sugare levels
  21. What does RP stand for and what should you do against it
    • Retained Placenta
    • If placenta doesnt come out then give a shot of oxytocin to make sure it comes out
  22. What is the endocrine and exocrine function of the pancreas
    • Endocrine: fxn in blood stream-- insulin decreases blood sugar levels while glucagon increases them
    • Exocrine: ducts -- enzymes to brk down proteins
  23. What does the hypothalamus do
    Produces realeasing hormones ie GnRH (recieves intervention from brain and gets a signal to release hormone)
  24. What does the Adenohypophysis (Anterior pituitary)
    - produces gonadotripons ie FSH, LH (right below hypothalamus)
  25. What do Gonads do
    produce sterioids ie. Progesterone, estrogen, testosterone (produced in response of FSH and LH. males and females both have all 3 its just the ratio that varies)
  26. What does it mean if the milk is dripping down?
    one of the sphincters is weak
  27. What are the aveoli in the utter for?
    • milk-utter barrier
    • (myoapithelian =smooth muscle contraction)
  28. What is a free martin?
    The female of a male/female twin pair in a cow --> hormones of the male twin go over and anvaginise the female so she is sterile
  29. Define Ovulation
    mature follicle leaving the ovary
  30. Define: Partuition
    giving birth
  31. Define oviposition
    chicken laying eggs
  32. What is a Mares
    Onset of puberty?
    length estrous cycle?
    length of estrus?
    gestation period?
    • 18 mo (10 to 24)
    • 21 days
    • 5 days
    • 336 days
  33. What is a cows
    Onset of puberty?
    length estrous cycle?
    length of estrus?
    gestation period?
    • 4 to 24 months
    • 21 days
    • 18hrs
    • 282 days
  34. What is a Ewes
    Onset of puberty?
    length estrous cycle?
    length of estrus?
    gestation period?
    • 4 to 12 months
    • 16.5 days
    • 24 to 48 hrs
    • 150 days
  35. What is a Sows
    Onset of puberty?
    length estrous cycle?
    length of estrus?
    gestation period?
    • 3 to 7 months
    • 21 days
    • 2 days
    • 114days
  36. Diferentiate between "Estrus" and "Estrous cyvle"
    • Estrus = and animal in heat, in follicular phase, estrogen domination
    • Estrous cycle = ovulatory cycle
  37. What does a cow do when she is in estrus?
    estrogen domination (when the follicle is at swollen stage) = may be off in milk production or jumping other cows and other behavioural changes
  38. How does a female get her germ cells?
    By the time a female is born she has all of the germ cells she will ever have, they sit and wait for puberty
  39. What happens when a female hits puberty?
    Once a female hits puberty = more layers of cells (follicles increase in size)
  40. What is the site of an empty (of ovulated oocyte) mature follicle called? and why is it important?
    • Corpus luteum
    • important because it maintains hormones (progesterone)  levels
  41. What is the hormone action as soon as ovulated?
    Estrogen ('wild thing' hormone) is gone and then need/use progesterone ('calming')
  42. What is the order of events of a cycle in a cow?
    Pituitary- sends FSH- casuses follicle to grow in ovary--> Estrogen brings on heat-->LH causes follicle rupture, egg is released--> progesterone prepares cow for pregnancy
  43. What is the endocrinology of the estrous Cycle of a cow?
    • While progesterone is high- FSH, estrogen, and LH are fairly low
    • As progesterone decreases the other three increase - first estrogen then FSH and LH (LH increases waaay more)
  44. When is Estrus in the endocrinology cycle?
    When the LH is high as wel as Estrogen and Progesterone is low
  45. PRID
    Progesteron Releasing Intravaginal Device
  46. What is PGF2alpha?
    • -Prostoglandin
    • -Leteolytic- gets rid of corpus leutem (knocks off progesterone cycle) to synchronise cows
    • -2 shot cycle
  47. What are the two ways to synchronize cows?
    • PRID (increase progesterone and pull out)
    • or PGF2alpha (get rid of corpu luteum)
  48. Why is calcium metabolism a big deal in birds?
    • The medullary is a calcium storage system where the bird takes Ca from when its gut is empty and stores its extra Ca when the gut is full
    • Chickens are so selected for for laying eggs and then the medullary is all used up and starts to use up corticol = osteoperosis = cage layer fatigue
  49. How are bird bones different from mammal bones?
    • mammals: inside = marrow, outside =bone
    • birds: inside = medullary, outside = cortical
    • Birds are different because
    • have adaptations for flight = less weight in bones
    • tend to be more compact (body mass to bone)
    • more fusion in vertebrae
  50. POF
    Post ovulatory follicle -egg is released, empty follicle
  51. What is different in chickens reproductive system from mammals?
    • Chickens have only 1 oviduct
    • chickens have no uterus because have no placenta
    • Rudimentary right oviduct
  52. Where is the site of ovulation for birds?
  53. What is the Magnum in a bird?
    Magnum = the longest structural part where an egg is applied
  54. What happens in the isthmus?
    Isthmus = shell membrane appled
  55. What is the order of the parts starting at ovulation?
    • stalk of ovary - small ova
    • Stigma- ovulation- mature ovum
    • Infundibulum (funnel)
    • ostium
    • neck of infundibulum
    • magnum -longest structural part where egg white is applied
    • Isthmus-- shell membrane applied
    • Shell gland
    • Vagina
    • Rudimentary right oviduct- no fxn
    • cloaca
  56. How does an egg stay clean?
    everts the oviduct so not contact with cloaca and then comes back inn
  57. Locate the names for the top, bottom, back, front and nose ends
    • top: dorsal
    • bottom: ventral
    • back: caudel
    • front: cranial
    • rostral: closer to nose
  58. Why are an eggs two cell membranes not connected?
    • because the egg cools down and the liquid inside loses volume and shrinks, shell doesnt get smaller though
    • chicks also pip into air cell so get stronger for 1 day beacuse more oxygen then head pulls back and pokes through the shell
  59. What are castrated: pigs, bulls, horses and chickens called?
    • pigs = barrow
    • bull = steer
    • horse = gelding
    • chicken = capon
  60. Why do most animals have external testes?
    For temperature (4 to 5 degrees lower than body temp to produce semen)
  61. Why do birds have internal testes?
    -they just evolved that way as a system accpeted and working
  62. Why do birds have a high body temp?
    higher body temp than most animals, very hard for chickens to get infections because of this!
  63. What is a rigdling? *****
    pig cryptorchid (species  specific name for crptorchid)
  64. Why did they used to castrate chickens and what was the technique used?
    • Castration- back in the old days because birds grew slower and androgens made teh meat tough so wanted to favor estrogen production
    • -2cm incision btwn 2 back ribs- rib sperator- took out rice looking testes with forceps. both sides.
    • =open holes on both sides would cause wind puffs
  65. After the first castration what was the second technique used?
    chemcal sterilisation: gave estrogen in base of skull so rooster turns into hen- went bad in ontario old folks home- scandal so gov baned
  66. Why is boar taint unfavorable?
    boar tant is a steroid produced by intact male pigs which gives the meat a funny smell when its being cooked = so can lose market. This is why we dont want rigdlings
  67. Define Cryptorchid
    Genderal name for animal born with one or more internal testes (usually testicular decent is sometime during later stages of gestation)
  68. When are the germ cells in females and males generated?
    • Females: born with all the germ cells they will ever need
    • Male: grow different sperm cells every 60 days (if he is stressed out like in hot climate= infertile for 60 days)
  69. How does a boar ejaculate/ what is the process?
    • -boar ejaculates for 8 to 10 minutes
    • -in the boar the seminal vessicles produce a thick fluid that comes out last after semen so it acts as a plug to the female
    • -the penis drills into the ring of the cervix of the sow and he ejaculates right into the unterus (horse and cow ejaculate into the vagina)
  70. Why are most secondary sex glands bigger in a boar
    because of how they mate with the sow: the boar has more dilute sperm and so needs a big volume
  71. How do a pig and a bull get an erection?
    • They have an S-shaped penis
    • If the retractor penis muscle relaxes = erection (sigmoid flexure)
    • If the Rp contracts the penis pulls back in
  72. Why do broiler breeders have issues with reproduction?
    because they grow so fast (these are teh genetics expressed for)
  73. What is Digestion?
    Taking food sources and breaking them into small units of aa, fatty acids, monosacharides for the gut to absorb
  74. What is the epididmyis?
    A part in the testes where maturation of sperm occurs and the fluid reabsorptioon of sperm as well
  75. Which part of the testes also makes sperm?
    Seminiferous tubules
  76. What are the three types of digestive tract systems in animals?
    Ruminants, monogastrics, non ruminant herbivores
  77. What is Chyme or digesta?
    feed when it starts to break down
  78. Why are horse and cow teeth flat?
    So they can grind and chew
  79. What is the function of a horses stomach?
    Mechanical digestion- wall=big stomach

    • "Gastric stomach" = food causes release of gastrin which eReleases Hydrochloric acids and lots of enzymes such as pepsin (which breaks down proteins)
    • -very acidic = pH of 3
  80. What is the function of a horses small intestine (and what are the three components)
    • 60 foot spectrum
    • 1. Duodenum
    • 2. Jejunum
    • 3. Illium (has sphyncter)
    • As go down the small intestine digestion decreases and absorption increases *

  81. What is the function of a horses pancrease?
    It increases pH because it releases many buffers
  82. What does the cecum in a horse do?
    • "Blind Sac"
    • no cycle food just in and out (Parastolsis = in, reverse parastolsis = empty cecum and bring back up)
    • Big, 1 hole
    • * Breaks down forage through fermenation because horses do not have cellulase they rely on bacteria in the cecum to break dow cellulose so they can get energy from it
    • Chyme spends a lot of time here
  83. What is Parastolisis and reverse parastolsis?
    Parastolsis = chyme into cecum, reverse parastolsis = empty cecum and bring back up
  84. What are sphyncters for in horses
    To prevent food from going back from where it came from
  85. What is the function of the colon in a horse?
    water is absorbed
  86. What are the characterisitic of Ruminants
    • They ruminate = chew cud
    • have a rumen
    • have more than one stomach
  87. What are the four stomachs of a cow?
    Reticulum, Rumen, Omasum, Abomasum (in this order)
  88. What is the function of the Reticulum?
    • Its the first place to accept food
    • contains the esophygeal groove
  89. What is the esophygeal grove?
    • aka reticular groove
    • located in the reticulum
    • channels milk from the esophogus to the omasum
  90. What is the function of the Rumen?
    • It is like a big vat full of protozoa and bacteria that ferments food for 24 hours
    • pre-fermentation: some food flows back and gets regergitated and swallowed again
  91. What is the function of the Omasum?
    • once the chyme is broken down it goes here
    • (looks like its full of leafs like a book) gringing and absorption happens here
  92. What is the function of the Abomasum?
    • "true stomach"
    • HCL and Pepsin and fermentation and some mechanical digestion
  93. Why is the spiral colon spiraled
    It is so long this way it keeps it from twisting and is in one place
  94. What order does chyme follow after it is swallowed?
    • Reticulum to the Rumen to get regergitated to  the Omasum to teh Abomasum to the Duodenum to the Jejunum to the Illeum to the Cecum to the Spiral Colon
    • (pregastric fermentation occurs before teh chyme goes to gastric stomach*)
  95. LDA
    • Left displaces abomasum
    • abomasum can flip and twist around intestine and cause it to squeeze off
  96. Challenges unique to Ruminants: Hardware disease
    • reiticulum sits close to the diaphragm and so if something sharp may poke through the reticulum and the diaphragm and the riminant may sufficate because it needs negative pressure to breath in and positive pressure to breath out
    • use bolus gun to shoot a magnet down which sits at the bottom of the gut to attract the items
  97. Challenges unique to Ruminants: Bloat
    • animal cant get rid of gas
    • stomach gets big on the left side
    • if too much pressure on espohegeal sphincter the animal cant eruciate so essentially the animal drowns
    • tube down stomach to release gas
    • if its too foamy feed tide to release the pressure
    • stab with with a TROCAR
  98. What is a TROCAR?
    sharp pipe or tube stabbed directly into the rumen to relieve the gas pressure of bloat
  99. What is CUD
    the chynme thats been regergitated and chewed again to be swallowed again
  100. What do the bacteria in the Rumen do?
    • millions of bacteria produce COand methane
    • get ride of gas through eruciating (burping)
  101. What does eruciate mean?
    built up pressure opens the sphyncter at the end of the espoohagus so gas can escape up through it
  102. What course does feed take through a chickens digestive tract?
    beak (no teath) --> to the esophagus--> CROP (short food storage time)--> esophagus continues after crop --> PROVENTRICULUS (gastric stomach) feed just goes through-->GIZZARD mechanical digestion (muscle), the gizzard size depends on how rough the feed is--> empties into the DUODENUM-->JEJUNUM--> ILLIUM --> 2 blind sacs CECA where bacterial digestion occurs--> out through cloaca
  103. What happens to the egg as a chick grows from it?
    Egg yolk gets smaller and internalises attached to the small intestine
  104. *What is Meckels DIVERTICULUM****************
    The part attached to between the jejunum and the illium where the egg yolk was attached and internalised. The nutrients in the yolk sac provide the nutrients to the chick for the first few days
  105. What type of digestive systems do chickens have?
  106. Why do some feed rocks to chickens? But why are they not fed to broilers?
    • rocks help with mechanical digestion
    • not fed to broilers because feed is fine enough and it would cause chaos in the processing equipment