Env Science S216

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Env Science S216
2012-10-01 01:43:24

For Oct 2012 Exam
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  1. Three  atmospheric air cells
    • Hadley
    • Ferrelll
    • Polar
  2. What is the ITCZ
    The Inter Tropical Convergence Zone

    An area of Low pressure, upward moving, cloudy,, damp, still air.
  3. Two ways in which plants weather rock
    1. Roots respire, produce CO2 which reacts with H2O in the soil to formweak acid, which weathers bed rock

    2. roots grow into cracks
  4. The mineral most  resistant to weathering
  5. Three minerals resistant to weathering
    Quartz, Feldspar, Olivine
  6. Three minerals least resistant to weathering
    Amphibole Pyroxene mica
  7. What is particle density
    It is the dnsity of the particles which make up a soil
  8. What is bulk Density
    It is the density of the soin as a whole, oncluding voids, water etc
  9. Where will water move fastest in a chanel
    It will move fastest at the surface in the middle
  10. Two ways in which taxonmic groups can be distinguished
    by the means of sexual reproduction, by DNA
  11. Five kingdoms
    Animal, Plant Bacteria Fungi Protoclists
  12. Adefinition of species
    Species are organisms which can breed with each other
  13. What is primary succession
    Plants moving into bare, newly created or reveald ground
  14. What is secondary succession
    plants which move into ground already colonised and outcompete the primary succession plants
  15. How does water move in waves
    In a circular motion
  16. What is the wave base
    The depth at which wave motion affects water
  17. What happens when the wave base is lower than the sea bed
    the wave length shorten, the wave ampltude increases, it becomes unstable and breaks
  18. Where is the there no erosion by a wave
    when the sabed is below the wave base
  19. where is there moderate erosion by a wave
    when the wave base is below the seabed but the wave has not broken
  20. when is a waves maximum erosion
    after it has broken and become unstable
  21. Why is energy disipated in a bat
    The waves are refracted and there is effectively less energy over a longer length
  22. Describe the role of th atmosphere in the Phosphorous cycle
    There is no gaseous exchange, it is present in dust particles that are easily washed out by precipitation or direct settlement
  23. For the Spearman Rank Coeff what is D
    it is the difference in the rank of two variables
  24. Describe what happens to UVC, its wave length etc
    UVC wavelength is 100 - 260 Nm, absorbed by O2 in the upper atmosphere
  25. Describe UVB
    260 - 320 Nm

    small amounts strike the earth, harmful
  26. Describe UVA
    320- 400 Nm

    All strikes the earth
  27. What is the wave length of the visible spectrum
    380 - 750 nm
  28. How does the atmosphere absorb UV
    • Less than 100nm is absorbed by nitrogen in the upper atmospere
    • between 100 and 250nm is absorbed by o2 in the atmosphere
    • between 200 and 310 nm is absorbed by O3 (ozone) in the stratosphere
    • greater tha 310nm strikes the earth
    • therefore a small part of UV B strikes the earth, this can be very dangerous causing sunburn etc
    • All UV A strikes the earth, warming it and proving part of its solar energy
  29. What is the difference between the temp and pressure graph within the atmosphere
    The pressur graph is linear, whilst the temperature can vary with hieght because of the absorption of uv by gases in the upper atmosphere and stratosphere
  30. A typical hieght of the tropopause? and temperature at the tropopause
    10 km

    -57 degrees
  31. Typical temperature at the stratopause
    -4  degrees
  32. Three types of flow into a water course
    • Chanel precipitation
    • Infiltration
    • Overland flow
  33. What is chanel precipitation
    pricipitation directly into a watercourse
  34. Two types of infiltration
    1. Direct - flows thour the ground directly into a watercourse without the ground becoming saturated

    2 Delayed flow - becomes part of a saturated zone, groundwater
  35. Possible causes of overland flow:
    • impermiable surface
    • saturated gound
  36. What is quick throughflow?
    Usually a combination of overground and direct flow
  37. Three types of delta and examples
    River dominated  -  Mississipi

    Wave dominated  -  Tiber

    Tide dominated  - Ganges
  38. Describe a River dominated delta
    Little tide or wave action, high levels of sediment deposition
  39. describe a wave dominted delta
    moderate wave and or tide action, high levels of sedimentation, spread out
  40. Describe a tide dominated delta
    high tidal range, causes featurs such as a birds mouth
  41. 4 ways in which animals can co-exist in the same habitat
    • Temporal Partioning
    • Spacial Partitioning
    • Food Partioning
    • Breeding sites
  42. What is the refugia theory?
    The cold climate of the last ice age caused tropical forested areas to shrink such that areas became isolated, which allowed species to evolve separatly and increase the species diversity when the forests where rejoined on warming.
  43. Layers in a temperate wood?
    • Canopy
    • small trees
    • Shrub
    • Herb
    • ground- mosses, liverwort
    • climbers
  44. Raunkiaer's classiffication, based on ? name the layers.
    The hieght of perinanting tissue from the ground.

    • 1. Phanerophytes -woody plants with perenating tissue greater than 25cm,  trees
    • 2. Chamaephytes - perenating tissue below 25 cm
    • 3 Hemicryphytes - perenating tissue at ground level
    • 4 Geophytes - perennating tissue below ground
    • 5. Therophytes - annual or short lived herbs
  45. What is Ellenbergs ranking system
    • It is an ecological ranking system based on variables which describe the resource a plant uses:
    • water
    • light
    • pH
    • soil nutrients
    • temperature
    • climate
    • salinity
  46. What is interspecific competition
    Competition between species
  47. What is the fundemental niche and ralised niche of an organism?
    Fundemental niche is the total number of habitats in which an organis could live, the realisd niche is that number of habitats in which it can actually livebecause of competion
  48. How do organisms co-exist and compete at the same time?
    • 1. Resource variability - soil coditions can vary over small distances
    • 2. Niche separation - differing root depth
    • 3. Establishment opportunities
    • 4. Natural enemies - parasites etc may abuild up and attack a dominant species.
    • 5. Climatic variability, able to withstand drought
  49. Define specific or field capacity
    It is the the amount of water a sample of rock or soil can hold against the force of gravity
  50. Why is the position of the perenating tissue of inportance in the classification of plants
    Because it can dictate the plants survival in particular habitat, ie. can it recover from grazing
  51. How can plants adapt to dry conditions
    • hairy leaves
    • thich stems, leaves to store water
    • fewr stomata to prvent evapotranspiration
  52. Name 5 depositional land forms
    • Beach
    • Spit
    • Bay barrier
    • Tombolos
    • Barrier island
  53. Which is the largest Nitrogen reservoir
    The atmosphere
  54. Two ways nitrigenis maturally fixed
    • in soils by bacteria
    • in the tubers of some plants
    • by lightning in the atmosphere
  55. What is the industrial process which fixes nitrogen
    The Haber-Bosch process

     CH4 + H2O gives 4H2 + CO2

    2H2 +N2 gives 2NH3
  56. Two principle incoming energy fluxes?
    • Solar Radiation
    • Infra red radiation
  57. Define Pourosity
    pourosity is the vulume of pours with a sample volume compare to the total volume of the sample
  58. What is primary and secondary pourosity
    Primary or micro pourosity is the pourse that are in a rock as part of its format

    Secondary porosity is that which is after its formation, cracking, jointing etc.
  59. Three processes that make nitrogen available
    • fixation - conversion of N2 to NH3 (amonia)
    • mineralisation - organic N to NH3 or NH4 (ammonium)
    • nitrification - ammonium to NO2 nitrite and NO3 nitrates
  60. three process that remove nitrogen from soil
    • Denitrification - the conversion of nitrates to gaseous form
    • volatisation - conversion of urea to ammonia
    • leaching
  61. why is nitrate (NO3) not retaind by soils
    soil particles and nitrates are both negatively charged