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2010-05-02 20:48:33

strength and conditioning
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  1. type 1
    slow twitch
  2. type 2
    fast twitch
  3. states that the acting filaments at each end of the sarcomere slide inward on myosin filaments
    sliding filament theory
  4. specialized sensory receptors located within joints, muscles, and tendons
  5. reduce muscle size and strength
  6. proprioceptors located in tendons near the myotendinous junction and are in series, that is attached end to end
  7. transports blood pumped from the heart
  8. transports blood back to the heart
  9. to exchange oxygen, fluid, nutrients, electrolytes, hormones, and other substances between the blood and the interstitial fluid in the various tissues of the body
  10. provides atp primarily for short term, high intensity activities and is active at the start of all exercise regardless of intensity
    phosphagen system
  11. the primary source of atp at rest and during low intensity activities, uses primarily carbohydrates and fats as substrates
    oxidative system
  12. the breakdown of carbs either glycogen stored in the muscle or glucose delivered in the blood
  13. at rest humans burn?
    1.2 carbs
  14. occurs when the concentration of blood lactate reaches 4 mole/L
    onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA)
  15. aerobic endurance training should be added to the training of anaerobic athletes to enhance recovery because recovery relies primarily on aerobic mechanisms
    combination training
  16. the oxygen uptake above resting values used to restore the body to the preexercise condition
  17. the study of the interactions between the nervous system and the endocrine system
  18. chemical messengers that are synthesized, stored, and released into the blood by endocrine glands
  19. hormones that promote tissue building..such as insulin, insulin like growth factors, testosterone, and growth hormone
    anabolic hormones
  20. attempt to degrade cell proteins to support glucose synthesis..such as cortisol and progesterone
    catabolic hormones
  21. stimulates growth, increases in protein anabolism and development and maintenance of male sex characteristics; primary androgen hormone that interacts with skeletal muscle tissue
  22. stimulates insulin like growth factor 1, protein synthesis, growth, and metabolism
    growth hormone
  23. primary signal hormone for carbs metabolism and is related to the glycogen stores in the muscle
  24. primarily epinephrine but also norephrine and dopamine are secreted
  25. slice the body into left-right sections
  26. slice the body into front-back sections
  27. slice the body into upper-lower sections
  28. consists of the skull, vertebral column, ribs, and sternum
    axial skeleton
  29. includes the shoulder girdle, bones of the arms, wrists, and hands
    appendicular skeleton
  30. the more stationary structure to which the muscle is attached
  31. the more mobile structure
  32. a lever for ehich the muscle force and resistive force act on opposite sides of teh fulcrum
    first class lever
  33. a lever for which the muscle force and resistive force act on the same side of the fulcrum; calf raising
    second class lever
  34. a lever for which the muscle force and resistive force act on the same side of the fulcrum; curls
    third class lever
  35. toward the center of the body
  36. away from the center of the body
  37. the body is erect, the arms are down at the sides, and the palms face forward
    anatomical position
  38. take__ leg strength if knee cap out
  39. olympic lift trains for the ___ and ___
    power clean and jerk
  40. said
    specific adaptations to imposed demands: you get better by doing more
  41. consists of high intensity intermittent bouts of exercise such as weight training
    anaerobic training
  42. an increase in neural drive is critical to the athlete striving to maximize strength and power, the increase in neural drive is thought to occur via increases in agonist muscle recruitment, firing high intensity muscular contractions
    neural adaptations
  43. training one limb can result in an increase in strength in the untrained limp
    cross education
  44. the force produced when both limbs are contracting together is less than the sum of the forces they produce when contracting unilaterally
    bilateral deficit
  45. the primary structural component of all connective tissue
  46. the parent protein, is synthesized and secreted by fibroblasts
  47. the parallel arrangement of filaments
  48. excessive frequency, volume, or intensity of training that results in extreme fatigue, illness, or injury
  49. the amount of blood pumped by the heart in liters per minute and is determined by the quantity of blood ejected wth each beat and the heart's rate of pumping
    cardiac output
  50. the force of contraction is a function of the length of the fibers of the muscle wall
    frank-starling mechanism
  51. resting oxygen uptake is estimated at 3.5 ml of oxygen per kilogram of body weight per minute
    1 metabolic equivalent of tasks (MET)
  52. the primary mechanisms for regulating regional blood flow
    vasoconstriction and vasodilation
  53. the pressure exerted against the arterial walls as blood is forcefully ejected during ventricular contraction
    systolic blood pressure
  54. O2 altitude? and CO2 altitude?
    20.93% .04
  55. a stage of maturation or development by age in months or years; birthday
    chronological age
  56. measured in terms of skeletal age, somatic maturity, or sexual maturation; muscular
    biological age
  57. muscular and broader shoulders
  58. rounder and broader hips
  59. slender and tall
  60. largely determined by the load being lifted, the experience and ability of the athlete and spotters, and the physical strength of the spotters
    number of spotters
  61. someone who assists in the execution of an exercise to help protect the athlete from injury
  62. be worn for exercises that place stress on the loswer back and during sets that use near maximal or maximal loads
    weight belts
  63. five point body contact position
    • 1. head is placed firmly on the bench or back pad
    • 2. shoulders and upper back are placed firmly and evenly on the bench or back pad
    • 3. buttocks are placed evenly on the bench or seat
    • 4. right foot is flat on the floor
    • 5. left foot is flat on the floor
  64. enables the athlete to maintain proper body alignment during an exercise, which in turn places and appropriate stress on muscles and joints
    stable postition
  65. palms down and knuckles up
    pronated (overhand) grip
  66. palms up and knuckles down
    supinated (underhand) grib
  67. the knuckles point laterally
    neutral grip
  68. one hand is in a pronated grip and the other in a supinated grip
    alternated grip
  69. the thumpb is positioned under the index and middle fingers
    hook grip
  70. the thumb is wrapped around the bar in all of the grips
    closed grip
  71. when the thumb does not wrap around the bar
    open (false) grip