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What is Social Psychology?
The scientific study of how individuals think, feel, and behave in regard to other people and how individual thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are affected by other people
What is and what's wrong with folk wisdom?
Folk wisdom is basically common saying. "Birds of a feather flock together" etc.
Folk wisdom commonly contradicts itself.
What is an operational definition?
An operational definition is a specified way of studying a variable. It is how you define certain hard to measure characteristics like attention, nervousness, etc
The 3 Methods of Data Collection
- 1. Observational- Description
- 2. Correlational- Predict relationships
- 3. Experimental- Causality through manipulation, control, and random assigment
Why does correlation =/= causation
For instance, subjects undergoing an expensive new cancer treatment also happened to have healthier hearts. As it turns out, people able to afford such a treatment also had more money for a good diet.
What are the two ingredients to infer a causal relationship?
- 1. Control over the IV and DV
- 2. Random Assignment
Internal Validity is
The certainty with which we can conclude the IV did, in fact, cause the change in the DV
External Validity is
The accuracy with which the results of an experiment can be generalized to other people
What is a Schema?
a mental structure people use to organize their knowledge about the world. Stereotypes are schemas about people and Scripts are schemas about events (birthdays, funerals, weddings, etc)
Cognitive bias for automatic thinking: Primacy Effect
This is the tendency for the first items presented in a series to be remembered better or more easily
Cognitive bias for automatic thinking: Confirmation Bias
A type of selective thinking whereby one tends to notice and to look for what confirms one's beliefs
Cognitive bias for automatic thinking: Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
A prediction that causes itself to come true due to the simple fact that the prediction was made. Ex. You think someone is gonna be mean so you are mean to them, causing them to be mean to you.
Cognitive bias for automatic thinking: False Consensus Effect
An overestimation of how much other people share our beliefs and behaviors
Cognitive bias for automatic thinking: Conjunction Fallacy
A **** occurs when two events that can occur together or separately are seen as more likely to occur together than separately
Cognitive bias for automatic thinking: Ironic Processing
the more you try to avoid thinking about something, the more you end up thinking about it.
Cognitive bias for automatic thinking: Counterfactual Thinking
The tendency people have to imagine alternatives to reality. If only/what if... We can change our own memories, adjusting the facts and creating new memories. Ex. Olympic medalist
Common Heuristic: Anchoring Heuristic
human tendency to rely too heavily, or "anchor," on one trait or piece of information when making decisions. Ex. Focusing too much on mileage instead of condition of transmission and engine.
Common Heuristic: Availability Heuristic
A mental shortcut that uses the ease with which examples come to mind to make judgments about the probability of events.
Common Heuristic: Representativeness Heuristic
People tend to judge the probability of an event by finding a ‘comparable known’ event and assuming that the probabilities will be similar. Ex. If I meet three people from a company and they are all aggressive, I will assume that the company has an aggressive culture and that most other people from that firm will also be aggressive.
Common Heuristic: Framing Heuristic
Wording changed how we perceive something. Ex. 50% Failure rate vs 50% Success rate
Cultural Differences in the way we think: Western
Thinking Style: Categorizing objects, explaining behavior based on rules about category memberships. Logic. Decontextualiztion.
Cultural Differences in the way we think: Eastern
Holistic Thinking: Focusing on relationships and explaining behavior in terms of context and connections between things.
What are the six Basic Emotions?
- 1. Fear
- 2. Surprise
- 3. Happiness
- 4. Anger
- 5. Disgust
- 6. Sadness
What is a Gait? What inferences can be made from someone's Gait?
A gait is the way someone walks. Age, Gender, and maybe even Sexual Orientation can be communicated through one's gait.
Three ways we communicate
- 1. Verbal Communication
- 2. Nonverbal Communication
- Kinesics- Body Language and Facial Expression
- Proxemics- Distance and eye contact
- 3. Paralinguistics- Tone, Pitch, and Volume
What is the Actor-Observer Bias?
The tendency to attribute our faults to external causes, and other's to internal causes.
What is the Fundamental Attribution Error?
Overestimate internal and underestimate external factors when explaining the behavior of others.
Are emotions communicative? How do you know? How does gender effect how easily emotions are perceived?
People were faster at finding an angry face on a male, and faster at finding a happy face on a female.
What is the Facial Feedback Hypothesis?
The idea that one’s Facial Expressions can have an effect on Emotional Experience. Ex. A woman attending a stuffy party forces herself to Smile, and finds she feels Happier as a result.
Bias of Social Perception: Attractiveness Bias
We tend to assume that people who are Physically Attractive are more socially and intellectually competant, but equal in integrity and concern for others. However, conscious focus on appearance reduces intelligence.
Bias of Social Perception: Perseverance Bias
A Lingering First Impression despite evidence that the impression is False
Bias of Social Perception: Halo Effect
A person with One Positive Trait is assumed to have Other Positive Traits. Ex. “Susie is pretty, so she must be smart!”
Bias of Social Perception: Illusion of Control
The tendency for human beings to Believe they can Control or at least influence outcomes that they demonstrably have No Influence over.
Bias of Social Perception: Just World Theory
The world is a fair place where people get what they deserve and deserve what they get. Good things happen to good people, bad things to bad people. If something good happens to you, you must be a good person!
The 2-Factor Theory of Emotion
- The 2-Factor Theory of Emotion states that we determine what emotion we feel based on Environmental Cues. The two factors that determine emotion are
- 1. Physiological Arrousal
- 2. Cognitive Label
- Ex. Edward cullen sweating.
The Social Comaprison Theory
- Key principles:
- 1. We want to Accurately evaluate our own Opinions and Abilities2. When we can't be Objective, we compare to Others3. We seek to compare to Similar others. Downward enhances our Self Esteem, and Upward motivates us to Improve
What is the Misattribution of Arousal?
A term which describes the process whereby people make a mistake in assuming what is causing arousal.
What is the Durability Bias
People tend to overestimate their emotions in regards to future gain/loss
A temporary state where we look inward and evaluate ourselves. We evaluate current behavior based on standards and values. This motivates us to change or flee from self awareness. Ex. Drinking, drugs, etc
Self-Esteem of stigmatized minorities
Self esteem is both lower and higher in different aspects. Black doll vs white doll, but Self Esteem Protection
Cultural Definition of the Self: Western
- In a word, Independant. People in independant cultures tend to strive for Personal Achievement. And, when in group setting, tend to Overestimate personal contribution and blame failure on others.
Cultural Definition of the Self: Eastern
Interdependant. In Collectivist Cultrures, people tend to draw their satisfaction from the status of the Valued Group. They are also more Modest about personal contribution.
The Overjustification Effect
Getting a reward for something intrinsically rewarding is now seen as work because you are getting rewarded for it.
Self-esteem=Ideal self-actual self
5 Ways we preserve self esteem
- 1. Self Serving Cognitions- Actor-observor bias
- 2. Self Handicapping- Sabotage yourself to make an excuse
- 3. Basking in Reflected Glory- Sports- They lost! We won!
- 4. Downward Self Comparison5. Positive Illusions- Illusion of control, exaggerate self evalutions, unrealistic optimism
Gender's Effect on Self-Definition
- Females- Weight, appearance, etc. Break from the norm- Dependance. The Caretaker and homemaker.
- Male- Being "manly," showing emotion, etc. Being the provider
Limits of Introspection
- 1. Introspection is inaccurate
- 2. Many of our mental processes are outside our awareness
- 3. People come up with logical sounding theories to explain their feelings and behaviors
Information is more easily recalled when it is related to yourself
And Emblem is
A symbol that's universally recognized, but only in one culture
There are two types of attributions. Internal and External.
The Spotlight Effect
Overestimate how much people notice our actions and appearance.