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2012-09-25 04:58:23

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  1. List the major groups of microbes and some of their distinctive characteristics
    • Bacteria: peptidoglycan in cell walls, divide by binary fission, some motile (flagella)
    • Archaea: live in extreme environments, methanogens, extreme halophiles, extreme thermophiles, none are pathogenic
    • Fungi: unicellular (yeast) and multicellular (molds, mushrooms), chitin in cell walls
    • Protozoa: Absorb or ingest organic chemicals, motile (pseudopods, cilia, flagella)
    • Algae: cellulose cell walls, photosynthetic, green red or brown
    • Multicellular animal parasites: helminths
    • Viruses: acellular, DNA/RNA core + protein coat + some have envelope, obligate intracellular parasites
  2. Identify the contributions of Leeuwenhoek, Pasteur, Lister, Koch, Semmelwise, Jenner, Fleming
    • Leeuwenhoek: Created microscope, first too see live microorganisms
    • Pasteur: Demonstrated that microorganisms are present in the air (disproved spontaneous generation using bended neck flask). Pasteurization
    • Lister: Developed aseptic technique to prevent surgical wound infections
    • Koch: First to show that a specific microbe caused a specific disease
    • Semmelwise: Advocated handwashing to prevent transmission of puerperal fever (baby delivery)
    • Jenner: Developed vaccination by using cowpox for smallpox
    • Fleming: Discovered first antibiotic
  3. Define binomial nomenclature system
    • Genus (Homo)
    • Specific epithet (sapien)
    • Species is BOTH names (Homo sapien)
  4. Give 5 ways in which microorganisms benefit humankind
    • Food production (cheese, booze, yogurt, bread, etc)
    • Producers (photosynthesis)
    • Decomposers of organic waste (sewer treatment)
    • Bioremediation (breakdown of toxic compounds into innocuous compounds)
    • Pest control (alternative to pestisides)
  5. Give 2 ways in which microorganisms harm humankind
    • disease/infections
    • food spoilage (food-born illness)
  6. Contributions to debate between biogenesis and spontaneous generation of Redi, Needham, Spallanzani, Virchow, Pasteur
    • Redi: Filled jars with decaying meat (some with fine net), growth only in opened jars. [biogenesis]
    • Needham: Boiled nutrient broth placed into covered flasks, growth occured (exposed to air while cooling) [spontaneous generation]
    • Spallanzani: Nutrient broth boiled IN flask, no growth [biogenesis]
    • Virchow: Believed/proponent of biogenesis (come from existing cells)
    • Pasteur: Nutrient broth boiled/sealed (no growth) vs boiled/unsealed (growth).  Also, curved neck-flask filled with beef broth.
  7. Define germ theory of disease
    The theory that microbes are the cause of disease
  8. Contributions to the germ theory of disease from Koch, Bassi, Pasteur, Lister, Semmelweiss
    • Koch: First to show specific microbe caused specific disease
    • Bassi: silkworm disease caused by a fungus
    • Pasteur: a different silkworm disease caused by a protozoan
    • Lister: developed aseptic technique to prevent surgical wound infections
    • Semmelwise: advocated handwashing to prevent transmission of puerperal fever
  9. Explain the purpose of Koch's postulates
    4 criteria developed to establish a causal relationship between a microbe and a disease.  Very specific, still used today
  10. Define chemotherapy
    Treatment of disease by chemical substance
  11. Differentiate between synthetic drugs and antibiotic
    • Antibiotics: chemicals produced by a bacteria to inhibit a different bacteria
    • Synthetic drugs: laboratory created (called antibiotics, but aren't truly)
  12. Contributions to chemotherapy of Ehrlich and Fleming
    • Ehrlich: coworker of Koch, looking for "magic bullet" to destroy pathogen without harming host.  Developed salvarsan to treat syphilis
    • Fleming: Discovered first antibiotic (Penicillin)