Social psyc. Fall 2012

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Social psyc. Fall 2012
2012-09-25 03:57:19
Social psychology

Social psyc exam 1-4
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  1. Define social influence 
    The effect that the words, actions, or mere presence of other people have on our thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or behavior
  2. People are overtly trying to influence you; direct attempts at persuasion (e.g., your friends trying to convince you to go out with them)

    What kind of social influence is this?
    Direct social influence 
  3. where just being around other people or thinking about other people can influence you; no direct pressure from those people (e.g., running on a treadmill faster because the person next to you is running fast; thinking about your parents changes whether or not you go out instead of studying)
    What Kind of social influence is this ?
    Indirect social influence 
  4. Define social psychology 
    The scientific study of the way in which people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the real or imagined presence of other people
  5. "We test our ideas about social behavior through research studies"
    This makes social psych......
    Empirical based science 
  6. Social psych focuses on construals, which means
    your interpretation or perception of your social world

    Bottom line: social psychologists are interested in people’s INTERPRETATIONS of their own social experience
  7. How we interpret our social worlds can come from two main basic motives or needs of human nature
    What are the 2 sources of construals?
    • The need to feel good about ourselves (i.e., the self-esteem approach)
    • The need to be accurate (i.e., the social cognition approach)
  8. People interpret their social environment based on the need to feel good about themselves or to see themselves favorably
    Most people want to maintain a reasonably high SELF-ESTEEM
    Which approach is this?
    Self esteem approach 
  9. A student fails a class
    Reality: student never came to class, didn’t read the book, and didn’t study for exams
    Student’s interpretation: failed because the exams were too hard and the professor was unfair
    What was the students construal ( interpretation) of this situation?
    his/her desire to maintain a positive view of him/herself

    • Did not want to think that he/she made foolish decisions
    • Instead, saw the failure as being the fault of others
  10. If you go through a terrible hazing to become a member of a group that you later find to be boring or negative, you will probably feel pretty foolish (I went through all that for nothing)
    To avoid feeling like a fool, you will try to justify your decision by distorting your interpretation of the group and put a positive spin on your experiences

    The hazing was a small price to pay
    Focus on the good things and dismisses the bad stuff
    This is called?
    Self justification 
  11. What is the social cognition approach ?
    people interpret their social environment based on the need to see the world accurately
  12. Your expectations of other people can inadvertently affect your behavior toward them, which can cause them to behave in a way that confirms that original expectation
    E.g., you think professors are mean/unfriendly. You walk by a professor and don’t smile or greet him/her.  The professor then doesn’t smile at you or greet you.  You walk away thinking that the professor was unfriendly.
    This is an example of what ?
    Self-fulfilling prophecies
  13. Other that the self-esteem approach and the social cognition approach being the two main sources of construals, what are other sources?
    Biological motives (e.g., hunger, thirst)

    Emotions (e.g., fear, love)

    Need for control
  14. studies designed to understand the nature of human behavior
    E.g., what are the causes of prejudice?
    Is what kind of research study ?
    Basic research
  15. studies designed to solve social problems
    E.g., can this particular program help reduce prejudice?
    Which kind of study is this?
    Applied research
  16.  an explanation or prediction of social behavior that is stated in a way that it can be tested in a research study, is called what?
    A hypothosis 
  17. A study design/method where a researcher observes people and systematically records measurements or impressions of their behavior
    Goal: to DESCRIBE human behavior
    What type of research design is this ?
  18. Method by which researchers attempt to understand a group or culture by observing them from the inside, without imposing any preconceived notions that they may have 
    The participants who are being observed know that they are being watched and recorded
    The goal is to understand the richness and complexity of the group by observing it in action
    Which type of observational research design is this ?
  19. Observational method in which the researcher interacts with the people being observed but tries not to alter the situation in any way
    Researcher interacts with the people that he is studying, but they do not know they are being observed and recorded
    E.g., Festinger joined a doomsday cult in order to observe how the participants would react when the world did not end on the predicted day
    Which type of observational research design is this ?
    Participant Observation
  20. A form of observational method in which the researcher examines the accumulated documents, or archives, of the culture (i.e., diaries, novels, magazines, newspapers, etc.)

    Not observing people in real-time; studying records of those people
    E.g., let’s say you want to do a study investigating how the perceived ideal body type for a woman has changed over the years

    You could look at the covers of major magazines over the last 40 years and compare the body shapes and weights of the cover models
    You could compare the height weight ratio of the winners of the Miss America pageant over the last 40 years

    Which type of research design is this ?
    Archival Analysis 
  21. A study design/method where the researcher systematically measures two or more variables and assesses the relation between the variables

    Goal: to PREDICT human behavior
    Which type of research is this?
    Correlational research
  22. To assess the direction (positive, negative) and strength (strong, weak) of a correlation,
    Researcher calculate what ?
    A correlation Coefficient 
  23. A statistical technique that assesses how well you can predict one variable from another
    Coefficients range from -1.0 to +1.0
    The – or + tells the direction of the correlation 
    Minus = negative correlation; plus = positive correlation
    The number tells the strength
    The closer the number is to 1, the stronger the correlation
    The closer the number is to 0, the weaker the correlation

    This is called what ?
    Correlation coefficient 
  24. What method  allows you to make causal inferences
    Correlation= causation 
    The experimental method 
  25. A study design/method in which the researcher randomly assigns participants to different conditions and ensures that these conditions are identical except for the independent variable (the one thought to have a causal effect on people’s responses)

    Goal: to establish the CAUSES of human behavior
    Is which type of research method ?
    Experiemental method 
  26. Researchers must have ALL of the following criteria in an experiment.....
    • Manipulate a variable (independent variable)
    • Have random assignment (all participants have an equal chance of ending up in any one of the conditions set by the researcher)
    • Measure a variable of interest (dependent variable)
    • Keep everything else the same
  27. Making sure nothing but the IV can affect the DV
    Essentially, it’s your ability to make a claim that the  IV is the only thing that could have CAUSED a change in the DV

    This increases what ?
    Internal validity
  28. Why do controlled lab experiments decrease external validity?
    Because lab studies can come across as too artificial, and it’s difficult to then generalize the results to anyone outside of the experiment
  29. extent to which the results of a study can be generalized to other situation and to other people
    Is what ?
    External validity 
  30. What are the two main types of generalizability
    • Generalizability across situations
    • Generalizability across people
  31. The extent to which we can generalize from the situation constructed by an experimenter to real-life situations
    Because social psych research is criticized for being too artificial and not generalizable, social psychologists try to make their studies are realistic as possible

    Is which type of generalizabilty?
    Across situations
  32. The extent to which an experiment is similar to real-life situations
    Is which type of realism?
  33. The extent to which the psychological processes triggered in an experiment are similar to psychological processes that occur in everyday life
    Is which type a realism
  34. The extent to which we can generalize from people who participated in the experiment to people in general

    Is which type of generalizability ?
    Across people
  35. A statistical technique that averages the results of two or more studies to see if the effect of an independant variable is reliable, is what ?
    A meta-analysis
  36. How people select, use, remember, and interpret information to make judgments and decisions
    Is what?
    Social cognition
  37. Thinking that is non-conscious, unintentional, involuntary, and effortless

    E.g., saying the 1-10 in numerical order
    Is which type of thinking?
    Automatic thinking 
  38. What are two forms of automatic thinking?
    • Schemas
    • Heuristics
  39. Mental structures that organize our knowledge about the social world (often around themes or subjects) and can influence the information we notice, think about, and remember
    - if you go into a new fast food restaurant, you know what to do even if you’ve never been to that restaurant before because you have a general schema for fast food places

    Is which type of automatic thinking ?
  40. The extent to which schemas and concepts are at the forefront of people’s minds and are therefore likely to be used when we are making judgments about the social world

    Is what ?
  41. Which type of accessibility is this ?
    This means that these particular schemas are constantly active and ready to use to interpret ambiguous situations
    Always on the forefront of your mind
  42. Which type of accessibility is this ?
    This means that a particular schema or trait is not always accessible but happened to be primed by something people have been thinking or doing before encountering an event
  43. The finding that people’s beliefs (schemas) about themselves and the social world persist even after the evidence supporting these beliefs is discredited
    Also, self-fulfilling prophecies can end up strengthening our schemas
    Which type of effect is this ?
    Preserverance effect
  44. Mental shortcuts or rules people often use to make judgments quickly and efficiently
    What is this called ?
  45. More people are afraid of flying than driving, even though you are more like to be in a fatal car accident than a plane crash
    Is an example of?
  46. Like thinking a pretty, friendly young woman is more representative of a secretarial-type staff member when she could really be a computer programmer

    Is an example of what ?
    Representativeness Heuristic
  47. Thinking that is conscious, intentional, voluntary, and effortful
    Which type of thinking is this?
    Controlled thinking
  48. whom asserts that people are programmed to believe automatically everything they hear and see
    Example What color is this white board
    A: white 
  49. What are the 3 steps of gilberts model 
    • Step 1: Initial acceptance of information(Automatic process)
    • Step 2: Assess truthfulness of information
    • (Controlled process)
    • Stop and think, is this really true?  Does this make sense?
    • Step 3: Unaccept, if necessary
    • (Controlled process)
    • If it’s not true or doesn’t make sense, then you reject the information
    • If there’s nothing wrong with the information, then you keep it
  50. The attempt to avoid thinking about something we would prefer to forget
    E.g., not thinking about junk food when you’re on a diet

    Is an example of what ?
    Thought suppression
  51. Successful thought suppression depends on the interaction of which two processes?
    • The first process is the MONITORING PROCESS (automatic)
    • Searches for evidence that the unwanted thought is about to intrude on consciousness
    • Once the unwanted thought is detected, the controlled process kicks in

    • The second process if the OPERATING PROCESS (controlled)
    • Attempt to distract oneself from the unwanted thought by finding something else to think about
  52. If the operating process falls through ......What occurs?
    (insert word)  (unwanted) thoughts occurring at a high frequency
    The monitoring process keeps finding instances of the topic or thoughts to be avoided
    But now the operating process isn’t distracting you from these thoughts, so these thoughts are constantly intruding your consciousness unchecked
  53.  mentally changing some aspect of the past as a way of imagining what might have been
    This type of thinking usually comes about when people have a “close call”
    Ex: missing an A in a course by just one point – if only I had gotten one more question on just one of the exams correct or if only I had done one more extra credit research study

    Is an example of which type of thinking ?
    counterfactual thinking 
  54. The study of how we form impressions of other people and make inferences about their behavior
    Is what ?
    Social or Person Perception
  55. A facial expression in which one part of the face registers one emotions while another part of the face registers a different emotion
    E.g., surprised eyes with a happy smile
    Is an example of ?
    Affect blends
  56. tThe study of how we infer the causes of other people’s behavior
    Or, a description of the way in which people explain the causes of their own and other people’s behavior 

    Is which type of thoery ?
    Attribution theory 
  57. inferring that a person behaved in a certain way because of something about the person (e.g., attitude, character, or personality)

    E.g., you see a man kick a dog.  If you’re making an ______ ______, you might think that he’s kicking a dog because he’s a cruel and abusive person

    Is an example of which type of attribution
    Internal Attribution
  58. Inferring that a person behaved in a certain way because of something about the situation he/she is in

    The assumption is that most people would respond the same way in that same situation
    E.g., you might think the man kicked the dog because the dog bit him, so the man was just reacting from the dog attacking him and kicked the dog to get away (we might have done the same thing)

    Is an example of which type of attribution?
    External Attribution
  59. The tendency to overestimate the extent to which people’s behavior is due to internal, dispositional factors and to underestimate the role of situational factors
    Is what ?
  60. The tendency to overestimate the extent to which our actions and appearance are salient to others
    We think people judge us more harshly than they really are
    As a result, we are more embarrassed or concerned about our inadequacies than we need to be
    Is known as ?
    The spotlight effect 
  61. The tendency to see other people’s behavior as dispositionally caused but focusing more on the role of situational factors when explaining one’s own behavior
    This is called what ?
    Actor observer differnce 
  62. If you score an A on a paper, it’s because you’re smart and a hard-worker, but if you fail the paper, it’s because the assignment was unfair
     This is an example of what ?
    Self- serving attributions
  63. What are some reasons for making self-serving attributions?
    • -Self-esteem maintenance 
    • Try to maintain self-esteem, even if it means distorting reality
    • -Impression management 
    • We want to present ourselves in the best light possible so others will have a positive opinion of us
    • Making an external attribution for our failures (i.e., excuses) helps us maintain that image
    • -Information availability 
    • We have more information available to ourselves 
    • E.g., you fail a paper – you know that you worked hard and that you’re usually a good student, so the paper had to be extremely difficult