Ecology Chapter 9 ECU

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zzto
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173241
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Ecology Chapter 9 ECU
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2012-09-27 09:19:41
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Ecology Chapter ECU
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Ecology Chapter 9 ECU
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  1. Life tables describe how
    survival and reproductive rates vary with age, body size, or life cycle stage
  2. Nx =
    Number of individuals alive at age x.
  3. Sx =
    Survival rate; (Nx+1/Nx); proportion of individuals of age x that survive to age x + 1
  4. lx =
    Survivorship; Nx/N0; proportion of individuals that survive from birth (age 0) to age x
  5. Fx =
    Fecundity; average number of offspring born to a female while she is of age x
  6. Static Life Table
    • Provides a snapshot of all cohorts at one time
    • Provides data on: Survivorship (lx) Fecundity (Fx)
    • No Survival Rate (Sx)
  7. Survivorship curves
    A plot of the number of individuals from a cohort (actual or estimated) that will survive to reach different ages.
  8. Three types of survivorship curves
    • Type I: Most individuals survive until old age
    • Type II: Constant chance of dying
    • Type III: Most individuals die young
  9. Age structure:
    The proportions of the population in each age class (e.g., 20/100, 30/100, 50/100)
  10. Age class:
    All individuals within a population that fall in a range of ages (e.g., 0-1, 1-2, 2-3).
  11. Age structure can influence
    how rapidly populations grow
  12. ------ and ------ do not change in life tables
    fixed age-specific survivorship and fecundity
  13. When lambda is below one, population is
    decreasing. When above one, increasing
  14. Understanding population growth requires knowing when -------- and ----- occur
    births and deaths occur.
  15. Life tables describe how survival and reproductive rates vary with (3)
    age, body size, or life cycle stage
  16. Fixed age-specific survival and fecundity produce (2)
    unchanging population growth or decline (λ) and a stable age distribution
  17. Changing age-specific survival and fecundity alters ---------------and ----------------
    population growth and stable age distributions
  18. λ can stand for
    • 1)the proportional change in population size between generations
    • 2)the geometric population growth rate (finite rate of increase)
  19. Geometric population growth:
    • Reproduction occurs at discrete intervals.
    • Example: Organisms that breed once a year.
  20. λ formula
    (Nt +1)/Nt
  21. dN/dt =
    rate of change in the population at each instant of time
  22. (dN/dt)=rN what does each part stand for?
    • dN/dt = rate of change in the population at each instant of time
    • r = The intrinsic rate of natural increase; indicates how rapidly the population is growing
    • N = the current population size
  23. Populations growing exponentially are represented with a ------------
    continuous line
  24. t
    doubling time, of a population is the number of years it will take the population to double in size
  25. doubling time formula

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