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- A calling requiring specialized knowledge and often long intensive academic preparation
- A principal calling
- The whole body of persons engaged in a calling
- (More than a job)
Displaying values, beliefs and attitudes that put the needs of another above your personal needs.
- Vital Service to society
- Function autonomously
- Specialized knowledge/education
- Existence of professional associations (PANS)
- Governed by peers
- Code of Ethics
- Individualized relationship with client
- Use of the professional organization as a major reference
- Belief in service to the public
- Belief in self-regulation
- Sense of calling to the field
- Altruistic (Concern for others)
- Exceeds expectations
- Pride in profession
Pharmacist's Patient Care Process
- Problem solving support
- Systematic provision
- Managing health problems
- Assessing progress
- Assessing problems
- Increase patients' skills
- Supportive Interventions
- Goal Setting
- Increase patients' confidence
- Where you live/work
- A group of people in your work force
The responsible provision of drug therapy for the purpose of achieving definite outcomes that improve a patient's quality of life
A solemn and binding agreement between a professional and a client in which the professional promises the client competent care, which involved the use of the professional's knowledge and skill and commitment to the patients major interests
held in society (not running people over with your car)
Morality of health professions
Code of ethics
Objects or things a person holds dear
- Things you need to do to prevent harm and building a society in which people can thrive
Moral character or virtue
Traits and dispositions or attitudes
- Systematic study of and reflection on morality
- Systematic - uses specific methods to examine moral situations
- Reflective - calls into question assumptions about existing components of our morality (habits, customs, traditions)
Provide a framework for observing and judging the world
What is right is based on knowledge that can be known to be a truth.
- Ethical statements are not known to be ultimately true or false
- How someones culture and experience can have a large impact
- Concrete questions related to morality
- Methods for ascertaining right and wrong actions and morally praiseworthy or blameworthy attitudes and behaviours
Story or case driven (BE)
- Inductive approach to ethichs - there is morally relevant information imbedded in the story:
- Narrative approaches
- Approaches to emphasizing relationships
- Approaches to emphasizing deep diversity and social structures
- Postmodernism and Diversity
- Instititutional arrangements as a factor
Virtue theory (BE)
Understand through idea of character traits or moral character
Principles Approaches (DO)
I am in a position to benefit someone else.
I am in a position to harm someone else
I have an opportunity to exercise my freedom in a situation.
I am in a position to distribute benefits & burdens among individuals or groups in society who have legitimate claims on the benefits
I have made a promise, explicit or implicit, to someone else.
I am in a position to tell the truth or deceive someone else.
- Means count
- Kant - consider duties and not just the better consequence achieved by one act or another
- Ends count
- Utilitarianism (How you get there doesn't matter)
- Bentham, Mills
How you get there doesnt matter.
Challenged to maintain your integrity or integrity of the profession
- Challenged about what is morally right; two or more courses of action diverge
- Can't achieve an outcome without another outcome being violated
Locus of authority problem
- Challenge - who is the primary decision-maker from an ethical point of view
- Most commonly arise when there is ambiguity regarding who is in charge
Components of ethical problems
- A - the moral Agent
- C - a Course of action
- O - a desired Outcome
Ethical distress (type A)
- Barrier keeps you from doing what you know is right (Ex: cost)
Ethical distress (type B)
- Barrier of knowing something is wrong but you are not sure what (Ex: Don't have enough information about the situation)
Paternalism - Ethical Dilemmas
Patient's preference is in conflict with the health professional judgement
Steps in Ethical Decision Making
- 1. Identify the Problem
- 2. Gather the relevant facts of the case (clinical/situational)
- 3. Identify all the values (ethical principles) that play a role, and decide which ones are in conflict
- 4. Propose possible solutions to resolve the conflict
- 5. Choose better solutions for the particular case, justify them, and respond to criticisms.
- 6. Evaluate results.
Value I - Best Interest
Registrants hold the health and safety of each patient to be of primary importance.
Value II - Professal Relationship with the Patient
Registrants cultivate a professional relationship with each patient.
Value III - Respect for Autonomy
Registrants honour the autonomy, values and dignity of each patient.
Value IV - Privacy and Confidentiality
Registrants respect and protect the patient's right of confidentiality
Value V - Responsibility to the Patient
- Registrants respect the patient's right to receive care.
- Conscience clasue -> still required to ensure the patient receives care.
Value VI - Observation of the Law and Preservation of Professional Standards
Registrants observe the law, preserve high professional standards and uphold the dignity and honour of the profession.
Value VII - Continued Competence
Registrants continuously improve their levels of professional knowledge and skills.
Value VIII - Collaboration
Registrants cooperate with colleagues and other health care professionals so that maximum benefits to patients and the public can be realized.
Value IX - Societal Health
Registrants contribute to the health care system and to societal health needs.
Value X - Integrity of the Profession
Registrants act in a manner hat enhances the profession of pharmacy and promotes public trust and confidence