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What are the two main points of Darwin�s book?
- Decent with modification.
- *Offspring have variation in genes with parents.
- Natural selection.
- *(Differential reproduction) the idea that those organisms best adapted to a given environment will be most likely to survive to reproductive age and have offspring of their own.
What is Macroevolution?
Evolutionary Change on a Grand Scale
What are the two theories of macroevolution?
- Gradualism - small changes over time
- punctuated Equilibrium - large periods of time with little change and short periods of time with large changes.
What is punctuated equilibrium?Speciation occurs in episodic events � large periods of time with little change and short periods of time with large changes
Speciation occurs in episodic events - large periods of time with little change and short periods of time with large changes
What are the three types of gradualism?
- Populational - new traits become established in a population by increasing their frequency from a small fraction of the population to the majority
- Phenotypic - New traits, even those that are strikingly different from ancestral ones are produced in small increments
- Phyletic - on a geological time scale, there are intermediate forms connecting the phenotypes of ancestors and descendents
What is a biological species?
A group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable, fertile offspring.
What is allopatric speciation?
Change of species due to geographical hinderance
What conditions favor allopatric speciation?
- Small population (different gene could spread quickly)
- Isolation (immigration and emigration)
- Different environmental conditions (ex: Grand Canyon)
- Autopolyploidy (self many chromosomes)
- Hybrid Zone
What is autopolyploidy?
self many chromosomes
What is Allopolyploidy?
Change of species due to geographical hinderance
What is a hybrid zone? What are the three outcomes?
- Reinforcement - Strengtheining of reproductive barriers
- Fusion - Weakening of reproductive barriers
- Stability - Continued production of hybrid individuals
What is the origin of novelty? (exaptations)
- Most novelties are modified version of older structure
- Exaptation- preadaptation
What is allometric growth?
the variation in the relative rates of growth of various parts of the body
What is evo-devo?
- Modern Synthesis:
- *Gradual evolution can be explained by small genetic changes that produce variation which is acted upon by natural selection
- *The evolution at higher taxonomic levels and of greater magnitude can be explained by long periods of time
- Genetic tool kit:
- *Hox proteins
- *Pax-6 gene
- *Cell-type regulators
- *Cellular receptors
- *Coloration proteins
What is heterochrony?
evolutionary change in the timing or rate of development
What is paediomorphosis?
- retention of juvenile features in an adult
- *sexual maturity in a larval form
What are hox genes (homeotic genes)?
Homeotic Genes (Hox Genes) position information
- How do evolutionary trends behave?
- Evolutionary trends are not goal oriented
What is adaptive radiation?
The emergence of numerous species from a common ancestor introduced into an environment, presenting a diversity of new opportunities and problems
Know the ways fossils are formed and what fossilizes.
- Sedimentary rocks: things been covered quickly. Ex: Grand Canyon
- Hard parts: teeth, bone, shell, seeds, spore.
- Minerals: petrified tree.
- Organic material: leaves, insect. Preserve the ecology at that time.
- Casts: outside structure of the organism
- Trace fossils: footprint/ evidence of social behavior, size, and weight.
- Entire organism: organism preserved within amber
What are the limitations of the fossil record?
You only have the hard shells no flesh.
Know how to do a radiometric problem?
What is a half-life?
The time it takes for half of the radioactive compound to decay.
Know the geological time scale.
What is continental drift?
Chicxulub Crater- Caribbean Sea near the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico
- Pangaea (245 mya)
- Pangaea began to break up (180mya)
asia, north America, europe
South America, Antarctica
Know the structure of viruses.
Nucleic acid encased in a protein coat (capsid)
Know the viral genome structure.dsDNAssDNAdsRNA (reo)ssRNA - serve as mRNA (+), Serve as template for mRNA (-), serve as template for DNA (retro)
- dsRNA (reo)
- ssRNA - serve as mRNA (+), Serve as template for mRNA (-), serve as template for DNA (retro)
Know how viruses replicate.
- only reproduce when they enter a hose cell
- They lack ribosomes and enzymes necessary for protein synthesis and simple metabolism
What are bacteriophages?
virsus that attack bacteria
What are the lytic and lysogenic reproductive cycles?
- Lytic inserts their dna into the cell which makes more virus and lycis the cell and spread
- Lysogenic DNA combines w/ the cell DNA which makes replication of that infected cell
Know the information give on HIV virus.
- CD4 receptors
- Reverse Transcriptase
- DNA Incorporation
- Produces genome for new virus
- Assemble HIV particles
- Exit by budding or lysis
What are the HIV treatments?
- AZT - blocks replication
- Protease inhibitors - blocks building of capsid
Know the structure of a prokaryotic cell.
Know how bacteria reproduce asexually and through genetic combination.
- (Asexual)Binary Fission: DNA replicates and the cell divide in two. good speed and energy
- (Sexual)Transformation - receives fragments of DNA from the environment
- (Sexual)Transduction - DNA carried into a cell through viruses
- (Sexual)Conjugation - exchange of DNA fragments
What different methods are used to classify bacteria?
- gram stain reaction
- oxygen requirements
- feeding strategies
Know the different shapes of bacteria.
- Cocci: Spherical shape
- Bacilli: Rod-shaped
- Helical: Spiral- shaped
- Filamentous - long and straight
Know how gram staining is done and how to read a test.
- Bacteria are stained with a violet dye and iodine
- Rinsed in alcohol
- stained again with a red dye
- violet = gram positive
- red = gram negative
Why do they stain those colors?
- Positive gram bacteria have a thick peptidoglycan which sucks up the violet dye.
- Negative gram bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan between plasma membrane and doesn't absorb the voilet dye.
Know the oxygen requirements seen in bacteria.
- Obligate aerobes needs oxygen
- obligate anaerobes oxygen will kill it
- Facultative anaerobes will use the oxygen if it is there but it doesn't need it.
Know the different types of feeding adaptations seen in bacteria.
- Feeding strategy photoautotrophic Energy source Carbon source Light CO2
- Feeding strategy chemoautotrophic Energy source Carbon source Inorganic chemical CO2
- Feeding strategy photoheterotrophic Energy source Carbon source Light Organic compound
- Feeding strategy chemheterotrophic Energy source Carbon source Organic chemical Organic compound
What is nitrogen metabolism? Nitrogen fixation?
- Nitrogen metabolim -nitrogen is needed for protein and nucleic acids
- Nitrogen fixation - convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia
- Makes nitrogen available for other organisms
Know the classification of bacteria and the different groups and species we discussed in class.
Know the different symbiotic relationships discussed in class.
- Mutualism: the relation between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other (+/+)
- Commensalism: the relation between two different kinds of organisms when one receives benefits from the other without damaging it (+/0)
- Parasitism: the relation between two different kinds of organisms in which one receives benefits from the other by causing damage to it(+/-)
What is the difference between exo and endotoxins?
- exotoxin- secreted b bacteria
- endotoxins - component of the cell wall
What is bioremediation?
sweage spills, oil spill clean ups
Know the characteristics of eukatyotic cells.
What are the two theories on how they come about?
Know the classification of "protista" given in class.
Know why they are lumped together. (Supergroups, clades, groups)
Know why they are different.
Know the general information on fungi.
- primarily terrestrial
- coenocytic (no wall)
- septate (wall)
- mycelium (a bunch of hyphae together)
- haustoria (feeding hyphae)
- What general fungi characteristics are related to animals?
- Heterotrophic - absorption (saprobes), parasitic, mutalistic
- Cell wall: chitin
- Store sugar as glycogen
Know fungal reproduction. (asexually and sexually � karyogamy,syngamy,plasmogamy);
- (Asexual) haploid spores (conidia/ sporangia)
- (Sexual)hyphae (haploid)
- (Sexual)plasmogamy (dikaryon) (plasma fusing together)
- (Sexual)karyogamy (diploid) (nucleus fusing together)
- (Sexual)synogamy (diploid) (happens all at once)
Know the fungal classification.
Know the life cycles of zygomycota, ascomycota, and basidiomycota.
What are deuteromycota and why are they called imperfect fungi?
imperfect fungi (no sexual cycle)
What are mycorrhizae?
Arbuscular mycorrhizae - increases surface area for the absorption of water and nutrients.
What are lichen?
- What are the ecological impacts?
- Lichens are mutualistic - association with a green algae or cyanobacteria and an ascomycota or basidiomycota and pioneer organisms
- Ecological impacts - decomposers, pathogens, food production
Know the overall evolution of plants.
- Nonvascular Seedless plants - (Ordovician - 475 mya)
- Vascular Seedless plants - (Devonian - 400 mya)
- Vascular Seed plants - (Carboniferous - 360 mya)
- Flowering plants - (Cretaceous - 130 mya)
What is thought to be the ancestor to terrestrial plants?
- What is the support for this?
- Multicellular and Eukaryotic
- Cell walls made of Cellulose
- Chlorophyll a and b
- Store excess sugar as starch
Know the adaptations seen in plants for terrestrial life.
- Apical meristems
- Muticellular dependent embryo (to give the offspring a better start)
- Alternative of generation (ex: gametophyte ? sporophyte)
- Walled spores produced in sporangia (protection)
- Other adaption: Cuticle: waxy material to reduce water loss, Stomata: control water loss (gas exchange), Xylem: move water (allow plants to grow taller), Phloem: move food (allow plants to grow taller)
- Secondary compounds: developing compounds that is toxic to protect the plant from the predators
Know the characteristics of nonvascular seedless plants.
Nonvascular seedless plants
What are the different nonvascular seedless divisions given? Know their characteristics.
- bryophyte - mosses
- hepatophyta - liverworts, two forms, leafy (80%), thalloid (20%)
- asexual (gemmae cups)
Know the life cycle of a moss.
Know the characteristics of vascular seedless plants.
- formation of vascular tissues
- xylem (water)
- phloem (food)
- true leaves, roots, & stems
- sporophyte generation dominate
- sperm with flagella
Know the different vascular seedless divisions given. Know their characteristics.
Know the life cycle of a fern.