A & P

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A & P
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2012-09-25 18:48:29
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  1. Anatomy is the study of the ______ body
    Structure
  2. Physiology is the study of the ______ of the body
    Function
  3. 6 levels of structural organization in the human bosy, from simplest to most complicated
    Chemical, Cellular, Tissue, Organ, Organ System, Organismal
  4. What is the definition of an organ system
    Group of organs working together to accomplish a specific function
  5. What is the definition of an organ
    Group of organs working together to perform a specific function
  6. Why is maintaining body temperature within a narrow range so important for suvival
    To maintain chemical reactions at life-sustaining rates
  7. What is the definition of homeostasis
    To maintain internal balance
  8. What type of feedback mechanism is most frequently employed by the body to maintain homeoststic balance
    Negative
  9. What state frequently results from homeostatic imbalance
    Disease
  10. What 2 organ systems exert the most control over maintainence of homeostasis
    Nervous & Endocrine
  11. What is the definition of a tissue
    A group of cells similar in structure and function
  12. 4 types of tissue
    Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nerve
  13. A sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a cavity, essentially forming a boundary between different environments is called ______ tissue
    Epithelial
  14. All substanced received or given off by the body must pass through a layer of  ______ tissue
    Epithelial
  15. 5 functions of epithelial tissue
    Protection, Absorption, Filtration, Excretion, Secretion
  16. The upper, free surface of an epithelium is called the ______ surface
    Apical
  17. The lower, attatched surface of an epithelium is called the ______ surface
    Basal
  18. Does epithelium coantain blood vessels (is it an avascular tissue)
    No
  19. Where do the epithelial cells get their nutrients from
    By the blood vesseld in the underlying connective tissue
  20. The designation of simple or stratified in naming of epithelium describes ______
    If it is made up of one or more layers
  21. What is the function of simple sqamous epithelium
    Diffusion & Filtration
  22. 3 locations of where simple sqamous epithelium are located
    Lungs, Blood Vessels, Kidney Glomeruli
  23. What about the structure of simple sqamous epithelium makes it adaptive for it's functions
    It is thin
  24. What are the functions of simple cuboidal epithelium
    Secretion & Absorption
  25. What are some locations of simple cuboidal epithelium
    Kidney Tubules, Gland Duct Walls
  26. What are the functions of simple columnar epithelium
    Absorption & Secretion
  27. What is the most common location of simple columnar epithelium
    Lines the digestive tract
  28. What are microvilli
    Tiny cellular protrusions from the apical surface of simple columnar epithelium
  29. What is the purpose of microvilli
    Increase surface area
  30. What is the most common function of pseudostratified columnar  epithelium
    Secrete mucous & propel debris carrying mucous
  31. What is the most common location of pseudostratified columnar epithelium
    Upper respiratory tract
  32. Does pseudostratified columnar epthelium contain one or multiple layers
    One
  33. What is the function of cilia
    Propel mucous & reproductive cells
  34. What is the predominant function of stratified squamous epithelium
    Protection
  35. Where is the keratinized, dry form of stratified sqamous epithelium located
    Epidermis of skin
  36. Where is a location of non-keratinized stratified sqamous epithelium
    Mouth, Esophagus, Vagina
  37. What is the most common location for transitional epithelium
    Ureters, Urinary Bladder
  38. Transitional epithelium is adapted for what function
    Strethching
  39. What about the structure of transitional epithelium allows for it's function
    Ability of cells to change shape
  40. What is the definition of a gland
    One or more cells that make and secrete an aqueous fluid
  41. A gland in which secretions are released into ducts where they flow onto the body surfaces or into body cavities is classified as an ______ gland
    Exocrine
  42. Give an example of an exocrine gland
    Mucous, Sweat, Oil, Salivary
  43. What is the only type of unicellular gland
    Goblet Cells
  44. Where are goblet cells located
    Epithelial lining of intestinal & respiratory tract
  45. A gland that secretes it's products by exocytosis is called a ______ gland
    Merocrine
  46. A gland that secretes it's products by cell rupture is called a ______ gland
    Holocrine
  47. What is the only type of holocrine gland
    Oil Glands
  48. The most abundant and widely distributed tissue type is ______ tissue
    Connective
  49. 4 functions of connective tissue
    Binding & Support, Insulation, Protection, Transportation of Blood 
  50. 4 types of connective tissue
    Connective Tissue Proper, Cartilage, Bone, Blood
  51. 3 structural elements of connective tissue
    Ground Substance, Fibers, Cells
  52. Connective tissue ground substance is composed primarily of
    Matrix
  53. 3 types of fibers found in connective tissue
    Collagen, Elastic, Reticular
  54. Which type of fiber found in connective tissue is the strongest
    Collagen
  55. Which type of fiber found in connective tissue is adapted for stretching
    Elastic
  56. 2 resident cell types found in connective tissue
    Immature/Undifferentiated, Mature
  57. Which cell type found in connective tissue is mitotically active and secretes the ground substance and fibers characteristics of that particular matrix
    Immature/Undifferentiated
  58. What is the prefix for connective tissue proper
    Fibro
  59. What is the prefix for cartilage
    Chondro
  60. What is the prefix for bone
    Osteo
  61. 2 cell types found in connective tissue
    Fat, Moblie
  62. What is the function of the fat cells found in connective tissue
    Storing nutrients
  63. What is the function of the mobile cells found in connective tissue
    Tissue repair
  64. Which of the 3 connective tissue components dominates loose connective tissue
    Ground substance
  65. Which of the 3 connective tissue components dominates dense connective tissue
    Fibers
  66. Most abundant type of connective tissue in the body is ______
    Areolar 
  67. Which connective tissue type acts as a middle-man between the blood stream and body cells with essentailly all bosy cells obtaining their nutrients and releasing their wastes into this tissue
    Areolar Connective Tissue
  68. What are the functions of areolar connective tissue
    Support & Bind other tissues
  69. Where is areolar connective tissue located
    Subcutaneous Tissue, Lamina Propria, Wraps & Cushion Organs
  70. 3 functions of adipose tissue
    Insulation, Protection, Nutrient Storage
  71. Which is the most important function of adipose tissue
    Insulation
  72. Where is the predominant location of adipose tissue
    Subcutaneous Tissue
  73. What is the function of adipose tissue in subcutaneous tissue
    Insulation, Nutritional Needs
  74. What is the function of reticular connective tissue
    Forms a soft skeleton, supports large #'s of white blood cells
  75. Where is reticular connective tissue located
    Lymph Nodes, Spleen, Bone Marrow
  76. What is the function of dense regular connective tissue
    Provide resistance to tension in direction of fibers
  77. Where is dense regular connective tissue located
    Tendons, Ligaments, Fascia
  78. What is the difference between dense regular & dense irregualr connective tissue
    Dense irregular provides resistance to tension in all directions
  79. Where is dense irregular connective tissue located
    Dermis & Joint Capsules
  80. What are the functions of elastic connective tissue
    To recoil following stretching
  81. Where is elastic connective tissue located
    Walls of large arteries, Walls of bronchi, Ligaments & Vertebral Column
  82. Cartilage, like dense connective tissues, provides resistance to tension. However, it also provides resistance to ______
    Compression
  83. Why does cartilage heal slowly
    Because it is avascular & lacks nerve endings
  84. The most abundant cartilage type is
    Hyaline
  85. What are the functions of hyaline cartilage
    Provide support from compressive stress & Allow for skeletal growth
  86. Where is hyaline cartilage located
    Ends of long bones
  87. What is the function of elastic cartilage
    Flexibility
  88. Where is elastic cartilage located
    External Ear, Epiglottis
  89. What is the function of fibrocartilage
    Provide tesile strength to absorb compressive shock
  90. Where is fibrocartilage located
    Intevertebral Disks, Knee Joint Cartilages
  91. Why is bone harder and more rigid than cartilage
    Prescence of calcium salts
  92. What are the functions of bone
    Support & Protect Body Structure
  93. Where is bone located
    Skeleton
  94. What are the functions of nervous tissue
    To regulate & control body functions
  95. Where is nervous tissue located
    Brain, Spinal Cord, Nerves
  96. What is the main component of nervous tissue
    Cells
  97. What is the main function of muscle tissue
    Movement
  98. 3 types if muscle tissue
    Cardiac, Smooth, Skeletal
  99. Which muscle tissue is responsible for voluntary movement
    Skeletal
  100. What is the function of smooth muscle tissue
    To squeeze substances through hollow organs
  101. What is the function of cardiac muscle tissue
    To propel blood through blood vessels to all parts of the body
  102. Where is skeletal muscle tissue located
    The bones
  103. Where is smooth muscle tissue located
    In the walls of hollow organs
  104. Where is cardiac muscle tissue located
    In the walls of the heart
  105. 3 types of covering & lining membranes
    Cutaneous, Mucous, Serous
  106. Where are cutaneous membranes located
    Attatched to underlying tissue
  107. Where is mucous membrane located
    Lines cavities open to exterior
  108. Where are serous membranes located
    Lines cavities closed to exterior
  109. Which membranes are wet
    Mucous, Serous
  110. Which membranes are dry
    Cutaneous
  111. 2 general types of tissues membranes are composed of
    Epithelium, Connective
  112. What are the functions of mucous membranes
    Absorb & Protect
  113. What is the function of serous membrane
    To permit organs to move with-in body cavities
  114. The ______ serosae line the internal body walls.
    Parietal
  115. The ______ serosae cover the internal organs
    Visceral
  116. 2 ways in which tissue repair occur
    Regeneration, Fibrosis
  117. Which form of tissue repair is better for maintaining function of the tissue
    Regeneration
  118. 3 steps in tissue repair
    Inflammation, Organization & Restored Blood Supply, Regeneration & Fibrosis
  119. During which step of tissue repair does clottin occur
    Inflammation
  120. During which step of tissue repair is the clot replaced with granulation tissue
    Organization & Restored Blood Supply
  121. 2 types of tissue that have virtually no regenerative capacity
    Cardiac, Nervous
  122. What is the homeostatic imbalance that results from tissue damage
    Myocardial Infarction
  123. What is the end stage in homeostatic imbalance that results from tissue damage
    Congestive Heart Failure
  124. With aging, epithelia ______
    Thin
  125. With aging, tissue repair becomes ______
    Less efficient
  126. With aging, bone, muscle & nervous tissue ______
    Begin to atrophy
  127. An abnormal mass of proliferating cells is called a ______
    Neoplasm
  128. What about malignant neoplasm differentiates it from benign neoplasm
    It doesn't metastisize
  129. What is the main cause of death from cancer
    It consumes a large amount of the body's nutrients
  130. What do carcinogens do to the cells that can lead to the development of cancer
    Cause DNA mutations
  131. 3 regions of the skin
    Epidermis, Dermis, Hypodermis
  132. Most epidermal cells are ______
    Keratinocytes
  133. What is the purpose of the firosis protein (keratin) produced by cells
    It gives the epidermis it's protective qualities
  134. Are the keratin cells produced dead or alive when they reach the skin surface
    Dead
  135. In what layer of the epidermis are melanocytes located
    Deepest epidermal layer
  136. What is the pigment produced by the melanocytes
    Melanin
  137. What is the function of melanin
    Protection from UV radiation
  138. Which is the deepest layer of the epidermis
    Stratum Basale
  139. In which layer of the dermis are the cells mitotically active
    Stratum Basale
  140. Above which layer of the dermis do the cells begin to die
    Stratum Granulosum
  141. In the stratum granulosum the cells excrete water-resistant glycolipid to coat the outside of the cells. What is the function of this substance
    To toughen skin & make it resistant to water loss
  142. The most superficial layer of the epidermis is the
    Stratum Coreum
  143. The stratum corneum produces dead, flat, keratinized sacs which provide some of the most important functions of the integumentary system. What are these functions
    Protection from abrasion, Prevention of fluid loss, Create a barrier
  144. Is the epidermis vascularized
    No
  145. Is the dermis vascularized
    Yes
  146. 2 layers of the epidermis
    Papillary, Reticular
  147. Does the papillary or reticular layer of the epidermis comprise most of the dermis
    Papillary
  148. Which tissue type is papillary layer composed of
    Loose areolar connective tissue
  149. Which tissue type is the reticular layer composed of
    Dense irregular connective tissue
  150. The capillaries that provide much of the nutrtion for the epidermal cells are located with-in the 
    Dermal Papillae
  151. A blister is caused by a seperation of which 2 layers
    Epidermis & Dermis
  152. 3 pigments that contribute to skin color
    Melanin, Carotene, Hemoglobin
  153. Which is the primary pigment responsible for skin color
    Melanin
  154. What about a population's environment determines it's skin color
    Amount of UV exposure
  155. Do light-skinned or dark-skinned people have a  lower incidence of skin cancer
    Dark-skinned
  156. Why do dark-skinned people have less of a chance of getting skin cancer
    Because they have more melanin
  157. What is the pigment responsible for the pinkish hue of Caucasion skin
    Hemoglobin
  158. In what cells are hemoglobin located
    Red blood cells
  159. What is the primary responsibility of red blood cells
    To carry oxygen
  160. What causes erythema
    Dilated dermal capillaries
  161. What causes jaundice
    Liver Disorder
  162. Which type of gland plays an important role in thermoregulation
    Eccrine
  163. Sweat from eccrien glands is composed mostly of
    Water
  164. Describe the role of eccrine glands in thermoregulation
    Cool the body to maintain homeostasis
  165. What other structures in the integumentary system play a role in thermoregulation
    Dermal Blood Vessels
  166. Sebaceous glands secrete their products into
    Hair Follicles
  167. Sebaceous glands become active
    During puberty
  168. Acne is caused by an inflammation of
    Sebaceous Glands
  169. What is hair composed of
    Dead Keratinized Cells
  170. What is the pigment that gives hair it's color
    Melanin
  171. What causes hair to become gray with aging
    Decreased Melanin
  172. The smooth muscle responsible for pulling the hair follicle upright & causing goose bumps is called
    Arrector Pilli
  173. Nails are a modification of the
    Epidermis
  174. Nails are composed of
    Hard Keratin
  175. 6 functions of the integumentary system
    Protection, Thermoregulation, Sebaceous Sensation, Metabolic Functions, Blood Reservoir, Excretion
  176. 3 types of protection barriers the integumentary system provides
    Chemical, Biological, Mechanical
  177. What is the function of the integumentary system that is important for calcium metabolism
    Metabolic
  178. How does the integumentary system play a role in providing  extra blood flow to the digestive tract for digestion after a meal
    It can shunt blood flow to send it to other areas of the body
  179. What is the most common skin cancer
    Carcinoma
  180. Are carcinoma usually benign or malignant
    Benign
  181. From what layer of the skin do carcinoma originate
    Stratum Basale
  182. What is the most malignant form of skin cancer
    Melanoma
  183. From what cells do melanoma develop
    Melanocytes
  184. What do the letters ABCD represent in recognizing melanoma
    Asymmetry, Border, Color, Diameter
  185. What is the immediate threat to the life of a severe burn patient
    Dehydration
  186. What threat becomes life threatening for a burn patient after 24 hours
    Infection & Sepsis
  187. What classification of burn is a sunburn
    1st 
  188. What classification of burn causes blisters
    2nd 
  189. What classification of burn damages the entire thickness of skin
    3rd 
  190. What 2 exposures can accelerate the effects of aging
    Sun, Smoking

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