Test 09_28_12 _Rad Bio Chapters 1 and 3

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Test 09_28_12 _Rad Bio Chapters 1 and 3
2012-09-25 11:26:28
Test 09 28 12 Rad Bio Chapters

Test 09_28_12 _Rad Bio Chapters 1 and 3
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    • author "me"
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    • Rad Bio Chapters 1 and 3"
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    • Rad Bio Chapters 1 and 3"
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    • Rad Bio Chapters 1 and 3"
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    • Result of abnormal cellular proliferation
    • Tumors
  1. Occurs when a stem cell undergoes mitosis and divides into daughter cells
    Cellular differentiation
  2. Normal ______ ______ (non reproductive cells) contain genes that promote growth and genes that suppress growth, both of which are important to control the growth cell
    Somatic cells
  3. The terms for the genes involved in the cancer process are (3)
    • Proto-oncogenes
    • Oncogenes
    • Antioncogenes
  4. The normal genes that play a part in controlling normal growth and differentiation
  5. Implicated in the abnormal proliferation of cells
  6. Also called tumor-suppressor genes, inactivation of ______ allows the malignant process to flourish.
  7. DNA point mutations, amplification, or trans locations transform a ______ into an ______, resulting in unrestricted cellular growth.
    • Proto-oncogene
    • Oncogene
  8. The cell cycle is broken up into 5 phases called:
    • G0 phase
    • G1 phase
    • S phase
    • G2 phase
    • M phase
  9. Which phase is depicted outside of the cell cycle continuum because these cells are fully functioning but are nit preparing for DNA replication
    G0 phase
  10. Which phase is characterized by rapid growth and active metabolism
    G1 (first growth phase)
  11. Which phase is the period in which DNA is replicated to ensure that the resulting daughter cells will have identical genetic material
    S phase (synthesis)
  12. Which phase is the period in which the cells prepares for actual division.
    G2 (second growth phase)
  13. ______ and ______ are synthesized and the cell continues to grow and moves relatively quickly into the ______ phase.
    • Enzymes
    • Proteins
    • M (mitotic phase)
  14. Cells are most sensitive to radiation during ______ and ______ phases of the cell cycle.
    • G2 (second growth phase)
    • M (mitotic phase)
  15. When tumors grow larger, the blood and nutrient supply is inadequate, creating areas of dead tissue called
  16. _______ cells do not die after a programmed number of cell divisions as do normal cells. Hence, ______ cells have the ability to proliferate indefinitely.
    • Cancer
    • Cancer
  17. Classified by their anatomic site, cell of origin, biologic behavior and can originate from any cell
  18. Tumors that are undifferentiated are called
  19. Tumors are divided into two categories:
    • Benign
    • Malignant
  20. Tumors that are generally well differentiated and do not metastasize or invade surrounding normal tissue, often are encapsulated and slow growing.
    Benign (examples: Adenoma, Papilloma, Neurons)
  21. Tumors that range from well differentiated to undifferentiated, have the ability to metastasize, often invade and destroy normal surrounding tissue.
    Malignant (Examples: Adenocarcinoma, Leukemia, Lymphoma)
  22. Spread to a site in the body distant from the primary site
  23. Tumors that originate from epithelium
  24. Tumors originating from the lining are called: (name an example)
    Squamous cell carcinoma (Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung)
  25. Epithelial cells that are glandular are called: (name an example)
    Adenocarcinoma (Adenocarcinoma of the stomach)
  26. Cells are diverse in ______, ______, and function.
    • Size
    • Shape
  27. All processes of life occur inside that membrane or on its surface and are accomplished by many specialized components called
  28. Within the plasma membrane is the ______ of the cell containing the genetic material DNA that directs cellular metabolism.
  29. The material from which genes are made
    DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)
  30. Individual genes are normally assigned specific positions or loci on protein structures
  31. The cell nucleus contains one or more is called ______, which are organelles that facilitate ______ assembly.
    • Nucleoli
    • Ribosomes
  32. Encloses the nucleus
    Nuclear membrane
  33. Between the nucleus and the outer cell wall is a substance known as ______, which is a conglomerate is semi liquid material called ______.
    • Cytoplasm
    • Cytosol
  34. Woven throughout the cytoplasm is a filamentous membrane which is continuous with the nuclear membrane and houses the ribosomes.
    Endoplasmic reticulum
  35. Important organelles responsible for protein synthesis
  36. Important in the storage and management of intracellular chemical substances
    Golgi apparatus
  37. ______ play a role in intracellular digestion.
  38. Harbor specific enzyme systems, facilitating certain metabolic processes, and vacuoles function in cytoplasmic storage
  39. The intracellular factories that produce adenosine triphosphate(ATP) from sugar and other organic fuels
  40. The source of energy that drives intracellular metabolism
    ATP (Aadenosine triphosphate))
  41. The observable sequence of events pursued during the life span of a dividing cell
    Cell cycle
  42. The period before the duplication or synthesis of DNA in the nucleus
    G1 phase
  43. In which living cells are fully functional but simply not programmed for mitosis
    G0 phase
  44. The period during which nuclear DNA is synthesized and chromosomes are duplicated
    S phase
  45. The cell cycle commences after DNA synthesis is complete and continues until the cell begins to divide during the M phase
    G2 phase
  46. Note:
    During G2, G1 and S, the cell is growing, producing proteins and organelles, and discharging its metabolic responsibilities.
  47. The shortest phase of the cell cycle and mitosis occurs
    M phase
  48. Note:
    The radiation therapist should be cognizant that radiation is most effective on cells that are actively dividing ( Law of BergoniƩ and Tribondeau)
  49. Five-carbon sugar may be deoxyribose or ribose, depending on whether the nucleic acid is DNA or RNA
  50. The building blocked of life
  51. Peptide information is encoded along the DNA strand in sequence
  52. Process of enzymes in the cell nucleus facilitate the transfer of information from a strand of DNA to a strand of RNA.
    Transcription (this particular type of RNA is called messenger RNA - mRNA)
  53. Ribosomes are the site of _______ at which the message borne by the mRNA is apprehended by another type of RNA termed transfer RNA (tRNA)
  54. Cell generation cycle
  55. Note:
    Gene alterations: BRCA1 and BRCA2 are gene alterations that are linked to hereditary breast and ovarian cancers