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energy-releasing process(hydrolysis reactions) exergonic
energy-using process(dehydration synthesis) endergonic
enzyme - joining of molecules, using ATP
- apoenzyme - protein portion
- Cofactor - nonprotein component is also an activator. If organic called coenzyme.
- Together is a whole active enzyme called holoenzyme
Importan coezymes (derivatives of vitamins)
Mechanism of enzymatic action
- substrate - active site =enzyme-substrate complex
- Substrate trasnfromed by:
- rearrangement of existing atoms
- dehydration synthesisSubstrate relesase - becuas no longer fit into active site
Denature ezymes by:
- Heavy-metal ions
- UV radiation
Factros infulencing enzyme activity
- rate of enzyme synthesis
- Substrate concentration - more subst, more activity.
- inhibitors fill the enzyme' active site
- can be reversible and irreversible
Noncompetitive inhibition - allosteric inhibition
bind to another site of enzyme called allosteric site.This binding cuases active site to change shape making it non-functional.
endproduct binds to allosteric site. Reversible. Prevents production more substances than needed.
- not proteins but RNA. RNA that cuts and splices RNA
- Function like enzymes - Have active sites that bind to substrates and are not used up in a chemical reactions.
- breaking off hydrogen atom -produce energy
- protons are typically aso removed along with the H atoms
H atoms attach - capturing energy
Oxidation-reduction or redox reaction
LEO the lion goes GER
convertion ADP to ATP
Subsrate - level phosphorilation
- addition of Pi(inorganic phosphate) to a compound
- ATP is generated by the phosphorylation of ADP ( ADP+Pi +energy=ATP)
- Pi is taken directly from inorganic compound
- occures in mytochondria in Eukaryotes
- in plasma membrane in prokaryotes
- in ETC - oxygen final electron acceptor
Only in photosinthetic cells -Light cuases to vie up electrons. Energy released from ETC is used to generate ATP and NADPH.
- 1 6-Carbon Glucose converted to 2 3-Carbon Pyruvic acids.
- net gain 2 ATP
- NADH were produced, destined for the ETC
Preperation for Pyruvic acid to go into Krebs cycle
- Pyruvic acids enter outer membrane of mitochondria.
- 1 Carbon taken off of each pyruvic acid and converted to CO2 The other 2 carbons makes the acetyl group
- Coenzyme A attaches to acetyl group = Acetyl CoA
- Puryvic acid converted =Acetyl CoA
Acetyl CoA enters the Krebs Cycle
- Acetyl CoA enters innermembrane of mytochondria
- NADH destened for electron transport chain
- 2 ATP
- 2 CO2
Electron Transport Chain
- Flavoproteins, Cytochromes, Ubiquinoses(carrier molecules) - accept and release electrons as they are passing down the chain.
- NADH -oxidized to NAD =release electron and H ion. H ion transfered into intermembranous space. electrons passed down electron chain in a series of redox reactinos.
- As e passed down the chain they produce ATP -chemiosmosisLast cytochrome passes electron to O2 and O2 than pickes up H+ from surrounding medium to form H2O. So final electron excepter is O2
ATP formation from ETC
- As proton (H ions) concentration increse in the intermembranous space is called a proton motive force. Than protons difuce through a transmembrane protein channel(where ATP synthase lives) into the matrix. As H ions move they allow ATP synthase to attach a phosphate to ADP to make ATP. Yelds 36-38 ATP in eukaryotes
- 38 ATP in Prokereyots ( in plasma mebrane)
Chemical reaction of aerobic respiration
In ETC the final electron acceptor is an inorganic substances - Nitrate Ions or sulfate ions.
- Only glycolysis - 2 pyruvic acids converted to another organic molecule which is the end product. NAD is regenereated so it can participate in another round of glycolysis.
- Organic molecules is the final electron accepter.
- Does not require oxygen. Smal amount of ATP
2 types of fermentation end products
- 1. Lactic Acid fermentation: Pyruvate to lactic acid
- 2. Alcohol Fermnt: Pyruvic acids converted to CO2 and acetyldehyde(alcohol) that is covernted to ethanol