Cofactor - nonprotein component is also an activator. If organic called coenzyme.
Together is a whole active enzyme called holoenzyme
Importan coezymes (derivatives of vitamins)
Mechanism of enzymatic action
substrate - active site =enzyme-substrate complex
Substrate trasnfromed by:
rearrangement of existing atoms
dehydration synthesisSubstrate relesase - becuas no longer fit into active site
Denature ezymes by:
Factros infulencing enzyme activity
rate of enzyme synthesis
Substrate concentration - more subst, more activity.
inhibitors fill the enzyme' active site
can be reversible and irreversible
Noncompetitive inhibition - allosteric inhibition
bind to another site of enzyme called allosteric site.This binding cuases active site to change shape making it non-functional.
endproduct binds to allosteric site. Reversible. Prevents production more substances than needed.
not proteins but RNA. RNA that cuts and splices RNA
Function like enzymes - Have active sites that bind to substrates and are not used up in a chemical reactions.
breaking off hydrogen atom -produce energy
protons are typically aso removed along with the H atoms
H atoms attach - capturing energy
Oxidation-reduction or redox reaction
LEO the lion goes GER
convertion ADP to ATP
Subsrate - level phosphorilation
addition of Pi(inorganic phosphate) to a compound
ATP is generated by the phosphorylation of ADP ( ADP+Pi +energy=ATP)
Pi is taken directly from inorganic compound
occures in mytochondria in Eukaryotes
in plasma membrane in prokaryotes
in ETC - oxygen final electron acceptor
Only in photosinthetic cells -Light cuases to vie up electrons. Energy released from ETC is used to generate ATP and NADPH.
1 6-Carbon Glucose converted to 2 3-Carbon Pyruvic acids.
net gain 2 ATP
NADH were produced, destined for the ETC
Preperation for Pyruvic acid to go into Krebs cycle
Pyruvic acids enter outer membrane of mitochondria.
1 Carbon taken off of each pyruvic acid and converted to CO2 The other 2 carbons makes the acetyl group
Coenzyme A attaches to acetyl group = Acetyl CoA
Puryvic acid converted =Acetyl CoA
Acetyl CoA enters the Krebs Cycle
Acetyl CoA enters innermembrane of mytochondria
NADH destened for electron transport chain
Electron Transport Chain
Flavoproteins, Cytochromes, Ubiquinoses(carrier molecules) - accept and release electrons as they are passing down the chain.
NADH -oxidized to NAD =release electron and H ion. H ion transfered into intermembranous space. electrons passed down electron chain in a series of redox reactinos.
As e passed down the chain they produce ATP -chemiosmosisLast cytochrome passes electron to O2 and O2 than pickes up H+ from surrounding medium to form H2O. So final electron excepter is O2
ATP formation from ETC
As proton (H ions) concentration increse in the intermembranous space is called a proton motive force. Than protons difuce through a transmembrane protein channel(where ATP synthase lives) into the matrix. As H ions move they allow ATP synthase to attach a phosphate to ADP to make ATP. Yelds 36-38 ATP in eukaryotes
38 ATP in Prokereyots ( in plasma mebrane)
Chemical reaction of aerobic respiration
In ETC the final electron acceptor is an inorganic substances - Nitrate Ions or sulfate ions.
Only glycolysis - 2 pyruvic acids converted to another organic molecule which is the end product. NAD is regenereated so it can participate in another round of glycolysis.
Organic molecules is the final electron accepter.
Does not require oxygen. Smal amount of ATP
2 types of fermentation end products
1. Lactic Acid fermentation: Pyruvate to lactic acid
2. Alcohol Fermnt: Pyruvic acids converted to CO2 and acetyldehyde(alcohol) that is covernted to ethanol