Phil 101 Ch1.1

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Mattyj1388
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Phil 101 Ch1.1
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2012-10-02 14:36:05
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general iformation, definitions, etc. Book: "A concise introduction to logic using traditional logic" by: Patric J. Huley: 11 edition
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  1. Logic
    the organized body of knowledge, or science, that evaluates arguments.
  2. Argument
    • (in its most basic form), is a group of statements, one or more of which (the premis) are claimed to provide support for, or reasons to believe, one of the others (the conclusion).
    • All arguments may be placed in one of two basic groups: those in which the premises really do support the conclusion and those in which they do not, even if theyare claimed to.   The former are said to be GOOD arguments (at least to that extent), the the latter BAD arguments.
  3. Statement
    • a sentance that is either true or false- in other words typically a declarative sentence.
    • ie:
    • Chocolate truffles are loaded with calories.
    • Melatonin helps relieve jet lag.
    • Political candidates always tell the complete truth.
    • No wives ever cheat on their husbands.
    • Tiger Woods plays golf and Maria Sharapova plays tennis.
    • The first 2 are true, the 2 are false, the last one expresses 2 statements that are both true.
  4. Truth values
    Weather a statement is true or false, if it is niether then it is not a statement.
  5. What are not statements?
    • Questions, proposals, suggestions, commands, and exclamations are usually not.
    • ie:
    • Where is Khartoum? (question)
    • Let's go to a movie tonight. (proposal)
    • I suggest you get contact lenses. (suggestion)
    • Turn off the TV right now! (command)
    • Fantastic! (exclamation)
  6. Premises
    Statements that set forth the reasons or evidence. Denoted by P1, P2, ....
  7. Conclusion
    the statement that the evidence is claimed to support or imply.
  8. Conclusion indicators
    • Typical conclusion indicators are not limited to the following:
    • Therefore - wherefore - thus - consequently - we may infer - accordingly - we may conclude - it must be that - for this reason - so - entails that -hence - it follows that - implies that - as a result
    • Whenever a statment follows one of these indicators, it can usually be identified as the conclusion.
  9. Premis indicators
    • Some typical premis indicators are not limited to to the following:
    • since - as indicated by - because - for - in that - may be inferred from - as - given that - seeing that - for the reason that - in as much as - owing to
    • Any statement following one of these indicators can usually be identified as a premis.
  10. Given this exercise; tell what is the premises, conclusion, if it is an argument, if it is a good or bad argument.
    All film stars are celebrities.
    Halle Berry is a film star.
    Therefore, Halle Berry is a celebrity
    • P1) All film stars are celebrities.
    • P2) Halle Berry is a film star.
    • C) Therefore, Halle Berry is a celebrity.
    • It is an argument and a good one.
  11. Given this exercise; tell what is the premises, conclusion, if it is an argument, if it is a good or bad argument.
    Some film stars are men.
    Cameron Diaz is a film star.
    Therefore, Cameron Diaz is a man.
    • P1) Some film stars are men.
    • P2) Cameron Diaz is a film star.
    • C) Therefore, Cameron Diaz is a man.
    • It is an argument and a bad one because Cameron Diaz is not a man
  12. Given this exercise; tell what is the premises, conclusion, if it is an argument, if it is a good or bad argument.
    The space program deserves increased expenditures in the years ahead. Not only does the national defence depend on it, but the program will more then pay for itself in terms of technological spinoffs. Furthermore, at current funding levels the program cannot fulfill its anticipated potential.
    • P1) The national defense is dependent on the space program/ 
    • P2) The space program will more then pay for itself in terms of technological spinoffs.
    • P3) At current funding levels the program cannot fulfill its anticipated potential.
    • C) The space program deserves increased expenditures in the years ahead.
    • Good argument.
  13. Is a premis always a statement?
    NO, Premis does not equal statement!
  14. Given this exercise; tell what is the premises, conclusion, if it is an argument, if it is a good or bad argument.
  15. Inference
    (in a narrow sense of the term), is the reasoning process expressed by an argument. In the broad sense of the term, it is used interchangeably with "argument".
  16. Proposition
    (in the narrow sense), is the meaning or information content of a statement. For this book, "proposition" and "statement" are used interchangeably. poposition = statement.
  17. Who is credited for being the father of logic?
    • Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle (384 - 322B.C.)
    • He was the first person to devise a systematic criteria for analyzing and evaluating arguments.
  18. Syllogistic logic
    Logic that deals with categorical propositions and categorical syllogisms.
  19. Modal logic
    A kind of logic that deals with concepts such as possability, necessity, belief, and doubt.
  20. Who is the father of symbolic logic?
    Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716).
  21. Who made trueth tables?
    • American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914)
    • Although finished by Emile Post (1897-1954) and Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951).
  22. Exercise: What is the conclusion?
    Since the good, according to Plato, is that which furthers a person's real interests, it follows that any given case when the good is known, men will seek it.
    C) Men will seek it.
  23. Exercise: What is the conclusion?
    Neither a borrower nor a lender be
    For loan oft loses both itself and friend.
    And borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry.
    C) Neither a borrower nor a lender be.
  24. Answer "true" or "false" to the following statement.
    1) The purpose of the premis or premises is to set forth the reasons or evidence given in support of the conclusion.
    2) Some arguments have more than one conclusion.
    3) All arguments must have more than one premis.
    4) The words "therefore," "hence," "so," "since," and "thus are all conclusion indicators.
    5) The words "for," "because," "as," and "for the reasons that" are all premis indicators.
    • 1) The purpose of the premis or premises is to set forth the reasons or evidence given in support of the conclusion. T
    • 2) Some arguments have more than one conclusion. F
    • 3) All arguments must have more than one premis. F
    • 4) The words "therefore," "hence," "so," "since," and "thus are all conclusion indicators. F
    • 5) The words "for," "because," "as," and "for the reasons that" are all premis indicators. T
  25. Answer "true" or "false" to the following statement.
    6) In the strict sense of the terms, inference and argument have exactly the same meaning.
    7) In most (but not all) arguments that lack inicator words, the conclusion is the first statement.
    8) Any sentence that is either true or false is a statement.
    9) Every statement has a truth value.
    10) The person usually credited with being the father of logic is Aristotle.
    • 6) In the strict sense of the terms, inference and argument have exactly the same meaning. F
    • 7) In most (but not all) arguments that lack inicator words, the conclusion is the first statement. T
    • 8) Any sentence that is either true or false is a statement. T
    • 9) Every statement has a truth value. T
    • 10) The person usually credited with being the father of logic is Aristotle. T

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