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What is Realism?
Unit Of Analysis The nation-state
Key concepts Anarchy; National interest; Balance of power
Imperatives Increase national power Self-preservation
What is Neorealism?
Unit Of Analysis The international system
Key concepts The balance of terror; relative gains; (bi) multipolarity; security dilemma
Imperatives Nuclear deterrence National autonomy
What is Liberalism?
Units of Analyses International Institutions
Key concepts International Law And Organization; Collective security
Imperatives International institution building
What is Neoliberalism?
Units of analyses International Regimes and Transnational Actors
Key concepts International Norms;The “Evolution” of Cooperation; Democratic Peace
Imeratives Promotion of human rights and democratization
Military and Economic control of
- Nation-states Yes and Yes
- IGOs Little and little
- NGOs Little and some
- Nations some and some locally
What is the Balance of Power system?
Say F & G attack E. Then some coalition of the other major powers such as BDE forms to oppose F & G. The knowledge that BDE will form presumably discourages F&G from attacking E.
What is the Collective security system?
If F attacks C. Then all other countries comes to Cs defense to oppose F. The knowledge will form presumably discourages F from attacking C.
IGO's list of global membership
- Multipurpose UN
- Single Purpose World Health Organization International Labor Organization International Monetary Fund World Bank
IGO's list of inter-regional organizations
Multiple purposes: Organization of American States Organization of African Unity League of Arab States Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Single purposes: European Economic Community Nordic Council North Atlantic Treaty Organization International Olive Oil CouncilInternational North Pacific Fisheries Commission
What are the conditions that must apply for balance of power to be stable?
Large number of essential actors "great powers" to make coalition formations and dissolution
The central decision makers in the essential actors must have the freedom to arrange alliances (coalitions) to deter aggression, eventually to dissolve those alliances, prevent wars of annihilation and so on.
The essential actors must share certain values. Above all, they must accept the territorial status quo.
Weapons technology must be compatible with the rules of the system: military mobilization must be slow to occur and it must be difficult to annihilate defeated countries (so they eventually can reenter the system)
What are the conditions that must apply for collective security system to be stable?
All countries in the system must feel threatened (vulnerable to attack).
-Members must be relatively homogeneous in terms of political culture; members must form an IGO to institutionalize the collective security agreement
The IGO (collective security institution) must be an effective organization—it must be able to identify aggression and to mobilize members’ forces to deter/defeat aggression
The IGO (collective security institution) must have a preponderance of power over any possible aggressor (so that the aggressor is deterred from attacking a member state)
What is World Hegemony?
The holding by one state of a preponderance of power in the international system, so that it can single-handedly dominate the rules and arrangements by which international political and economic relations are conducted.
What is Soveriety?
Internal and external?
- A state's right, at least in principle to do whatever it wants within its own territory; traditionally, sovereignty is the most important international norm.
- Internal: Gov't controls money and everything inside.
- External: Gov't control trade and things coming in and out.
Balance of Power?
- Base of Realism theory. Counter to Liberalism collective security
- One or more states power being used to balance that of another state or group of states. The counter balance of colitions that form and deform.
Power transition theory?
The largest wars result from challenges to the top position in teh status hierarcy, when a rising power is surpassing the most powerful state.
What is NATO?
Alliance of NA and West Europe. Created a standing army of 300,000 and is involved in defending agaisnt soviets during cold war. Also helping countries in war. NATO is anti soviet and communist.
What is collective security?
The formation of a broad alliance of most major actors in an international system for the purpose of jointly opposing aggression by an actor; somtimes seen as presuppposing the existence of a universal organization to which both the aggressor and its opponents belong.
What is the league of Nations?
An organization established after WWI and a forerunner to the UN; it achieved certain humanitarian and other successes but was weakened by the absence of US membership and by its own lack of effectiveness in ensuring collective security.
What is democratic peace?
The proposition, strongly supported by empirical evidence, that democracies almost never fight wars against each other, but fight states that are not democracies.
What is the UN?
Organization of neraly all worlds states, created after WWII to promote collective security/
What is the UN General assembly?
A body composed of representatives of all states that allocates UN funds, passes nonbinding resolutions, and coordinates third world development programs and various autonomous agencies through the economic and social council.
What is the UN security council?
A body of five great powers and ten rotating member states that makes decisions about international peace and security including the dispatch of UN peacekeeping forces.
What is the Millennium Development Goals?
UN targets for basic needs measures such as reducing poverty and hunger, adopted in 2000 with a target date of 2015.
What is remittances?
Money sent home by migrant workers to individuals un their country of origin.
What is post colonial dependence?
Accumulation of capital cannot sustain itself internally. A dependent country must borrow capital cannot sustain itself internally.
What is Neocolonialism?
The continuation, in a former colony, of colonial exploitation without formal political control.
What is an international regime?
A set of rules, norms, and procedures around which the expectations of actors converge in ceratin issue area. EX arms conrtol, international trade, or antarctic exploration.