bio psych questions 1-3

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bio psych questions 1-3
2012-09-25 14:51:29
bio psych

bio psych
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  1. an atom has 17 protons. what charge will its ionic for have?
  2. during the resting potential, sodium ions are concentrated outside of the neuron, which is net negative to the inside. if the sodiu channels open, what will happen?
    sodium will flow into the neuron due to the electrical and concentration gradients
  3. T/F action potentials are all or none. a neuron doesn't have weak ones and stronger ones
  4. right behind an advancing action potential, the neuron is
    in a refractory period
  5. which of these requires energy from the diet to move ions?
    active transport (sodium-potassium pump
  6. T/F during the resting potential, the neuron is net negative to the inside
  7. during the resting potential, potassium is more concentrated inside the neuron than outside. what are the electrical and concentration gradients trying to do to the K+?
    electrical gradient trying to move it in to the neuron, concentration gradient out
  8. if both the electrical and concentration gradients are trying to move sodium into the neuron during the resting potential, why doesn;t it move in?
    the sudium channels are closed
  9. the sodium-potassium pump
    helps restore the resting potential after an action potential
  10. just as a neuron is having an action potential, a scientist artifically starts one at the other end of the axon. what will happen when they meet?
    they will stop because they will be moving into refractory period
  11. T/F if a characteristic is due to biology, that means it can not be modified
  12. T/F the heritability of intelligence in siberia is the same as the heritability of intelligence of people in NYC
  13. the heritability of Trait X would be highest in which of these groups?
    random babies reared in barrels
  14. the "receiving end" of a neuron
    the dendrites
  15. which of these is not a function of glial cells?
    sending messages from one area of the brain to another
  16. T/F each neuron possesses a copy of the genetic code as well as waste disposal, manufacturing and transportatio facilities
  17. T/F the brain is estimated to contain about 50 million neurons
  18. the blood-brain barrier is vital because
    neurons, for the most part, don't get replaced if they die
  19. T/F neuron shape is related to neuron function
  20. While some substances can pass fairly freely across the blood-brain barrier, others such as glucose must enter by
    using energy from the diet to achieve active transport
  21. T/F we can determine "how much" of Joe's schizophrenia is caused by genes and how much is due to environment
  22. T/F that the Y chromosome has only a few genes on it other than those that turn on male development makes men more at risk for recessive disorder determined by genes on the X chromosome
  23. which of these is an example of the multiplier effect:
    Joe has the perfect genotype for an athlete; that contributes to his doing well in athletics which makes it more likely that he will seek out experiences that develop the genetically-influenced traits to their fullest
  24. T/F if a characteristic is biologicall based, that means it can not be modified by experience
  25. T/F even though a male and female have the same genotype for a trait, it is possible that tehy will differ on that trait because of the effect of sex hormones
  26. T?F it is easy to determine whether a given characteristic is due to genetics or prenatal environment
  27. T/F recent studies suggest it is possible, at least in some species, for experiece to inactivate a gene and for the inactivated form of that geen to be passed on to offspring
  28. T/F children learn language rather rapidly. if only we could indentify the centers in the brain taht support that learning, the biological psychology of language would be compelte
  29. most biologcal psychologists are dualists- that is, they believe that body and mind are separate realities
  30. T/F scientists udnerstand why we have conscious experience
  31. T/F I alone exist. you are simply a creation of my mind
  32. electrical gradients lead to what movements?
    the negatively charged proteins inside the cell
  33. concentration gradient=
    difference in distribution for various ions between the inside and outside
  34. what moves K+ out when neuron is at rest?
    concentration  gradient
  35. what is the advantage of having a resting potential?
    the cell is prepared to respond quickly to a stimuls
  36. what is the result if a stimulus shifts the potential inside from the resting potential to a more negative potential?
  37. when it gets closer to zero it is....
  38. what happens to ion gates when the membrane starts to depolarize
    sodium gates open
  39. stilumus A depolarizes a neuron just barely above the threshold. stilulus B depolarizes a neuron to 10 mV beyond threshold. what is expected?
    stimulus a and be will produce the same result
  40. if depolarization is less than the cell's threshold:
    sodium croesses the membrane only slightly more than usual
  41. suppose we applied a drug to a neuron that caused its Na+ gates to suddenly open, what would occure?
    action potential
  42. a drug would prevent an action potential if it:
    blocks movement of sodium across the membrane
  43. all or none states that:
    all neuron porduced an action potential of maximum strength or none at all
  44. why would a different message occur?
    rate/pattern of action potential is changed
  45. primary feature of a neuron that prevents the action potential from traveling back from where it just passes is the 
    refractory period
  46. which feature of a neuron limits the number of action potential it can produce per second?
    refractory period
  47. where do most action potential begin?
    the axon hillock
  48. what happens once an action potential starts:
    it regenerated at other points along the axon
  49. fuction of the myelin sheath:
    increase velocity of transmission
  50. to what does saltatory conduction refer?
    transmission alpon myelinated axon
  51. how is a myelinated axon that has lost its myelin different from one that never had one
    lacks Na+ gates along parts of its surface
  52. atom has 20 protons, what will the ion charge be?
  53. name and define the 4 factors that allow action potential:
    • 1. selectively permeable membrane
    • 2. concentration gradient
    • 3. electrical gradient
    • 4. Na+-K+ pump
  54. T/F abolitionists maintain that no animals have the same rights as humans
  55. T/F sex limited genes are only on the X and Y chromosomes
  56. at microscopic level, we find 2 kinds of cells:
    neurons and glia
  57. a(n) _____ descrives how a structure/behavior develops, including influences of genes, neutrition, experiences ad interactions
  58. a_______explanation would descrie eating in terms of the hypothalamus affecting insulin production, which affects the availability fo those glucose in cells
  59. mapping out the relationship between shared bone structure across different species 
  60. fuctional explanation of why giragges have such long necks is that:
    allows them greater access to their food supply
  61. recessive genes manifest their effects only when the individual is _____for them
  62. under what condition are sex-limited genes demonstrated?
    when particular hormones are present
  63. any estimate of the heredity of a particular trait is specific to:
    a given population
  64. to say there is a gene for blue eyes:
    genes indirectly produce blue eyes
  65. "reproduction of the fittest"
  66. geners are_______
    neither all important nor irrelavent
  67. genes dont directly cause behavior. what do they actually do?
    make a person more prone to it, recipes for proteins (affect chemical reactions)
  68. T/F heretability can be computed only for groups, not indivuduals
  69. T/F the heritability of a specific train could be different for different populations. 
  70. T/F investigators have found taht nearly every behavior humans display has a significant heritability
  71. can a stressor experienced by grandma rat affect the genetic heritage of Grandbaby rat?
    yes. if it is passed on
  72. baby joey is the biological child of a criminal mom. joey is adopted at birth by a good family but nonetheless grows up to be a criminal. can we assume joey's criminal behavior is genetic in origin?
    yes, but other factors: environment, neglect, lack of belonging, etc. could also come into play
  73. while genetic factors certainly affect musical ability, it is uite possible that the child with genetically-based music ability that is only somewhat about average to become truly outstanding. how might a slight genetic advantage become a major actual advantage? what is that called
    multiplier effect-more prone
  74. identify three factors that make it difficult to estimate the impact of heredity on behavior?
    environment, inability to seperate, and inconsistency
  75. T/F genetically-based disorders are unmodifiable. explain your answer using PKU as an example
    FALSE- environment/nutrtion can alter it
  76. neurons release_______ at ______ which _______or ________te postsynaptic neuron
    • 1. neurotransmitters
    • 2. synapse
    • 3. excite
    • 4. inhibit
  77. it usually takes _______of neuron transmitters to produce an action potential: one release usually produces a ______response.
    • 1. alot/many
    • 2. subthreshold
  78. Psychoactive durgs almost all work at the ______
  79. nearly all abused drugs increase ____ release in ___________. these brain areas come to respond more to the addictive sbstance and less to_______
    • 1. dopamine
    • 2. certain areas of the brain
    • 3. other reinforcers
  80. charles sherrington inferred synapses because the speed of a neural transmission through a reflex arc was ____than the known speed of transmission down the axon
  81. each neuron is ____to neurons it send to and ______ it receives from. each neuron can have ______of synapses
    • 1. presynaptic
    • 2. postsynaptic
    • 3. thousands
  82. EPSPs occur when the ____membrane begins to _____. EPSPs ______the likelihood that the _____neuron will have an AP
    • 1. postsynaptic
    • 2 depolarizes
    • 3 increase
    • 4. postsynaptic
  83. IPSPs occure wen the ___behins to _____. IPSPs _____the likelihoo that the ______neuron will have an AP
    • 1. postsynaptic
    • 2 hyperpolarizes
    • 3 decreases
    • 4 postsynaptic
  84. whether the postsynaptic neuron does develop an AP depends on_____
    net charge and the ratio
  85. when two PSPs develop near eac other on the postsynaptic membraine _______ summation cna reslt, prodcing more change in PSP
  86. spontaneous firing happen when_____
    resting potential and threshold are the same
  87. EPSPs____ number of AP ____spontaneous rate
    • increase
    • above
  88. IPSPs __number of APs to _____ spontaneous rate
    • decrease
    • below
  89. NTs are synthesized from _____ in_____ or _______
    • diet
    • cell body
    • at end of axon
  90. if synthesized in cell body, NTs must be ____to ______
    • transferred
    • presynaptic terminals
  91. molecues of NT are stored in _______in the ______
    • vesicles
    • post synaptic terminals
  92. NTS are relaesed by the process of _____ tat is triggered by____
    • exocytosis
    • action potential
  93. NTs occur in _____ families
  94. NT croess the _____and attaches to _____ and then separates from _____
    • synapse 
    • receptors
    • them
  95. most neurons release 2 or more NTs and have receptors for _____
    alot more than they release
  96. postsynaptic neurons can:
    send signals back to postsynaptic neurons
  97. releasing (presynaptic neuron) has ______ that signal neuron to slow down release of NT
  98. effects of NT can be either ____ or ______
    • ionotrophic
    • metabotrophic
  99. ionotrophic effects: NT ______. effect is ____, _____
    • move ions
    • rapid
    • short
  100. most ionotrophic effects are due to _____ or ____
    • glytamate
    • GABA
  101. metabotrophic effets: NT _________. second messenger is located ______ the receiving neuron 
    • bind to receptors
    • postsynaptic cell
  102. second messengers can:
    • open/close gates
    • protein production alteration
    • activate genes
  103. ionotrophic effects thus serve need for rapid transmission, such as for ______ while metabotrophic effects serve for such things as _______
    • quick messages (eyes)
    • slower messages (emotions)
  104. peptides are often descrived as _____
  105. peptides use a ____ process
  106. how are peptides different from NT?
    • release from whole neuron
    • need repeated stimulation
    • triggers more release
    • diffuse widely effect nearby neurons
    • not seen as often
  107. hormones are chemicals released by______ and distributed throug widely. thus while neurons mostly give discrete messages to ____, homromes send their messages widely
    • glands
    • nearby neurons
  108. hormones work by _____ processes
  109. many chemicals can serve either as ____ or as _______
    • hormones
    • neurotransmitters

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