Alcohols contain an -OH group, which is polar and hydrophilic due to it's electronegative O atom. Molecules with many -OH dissolve easily in water.
Thiols have an -SH group, which is polar and hydeophilic due to it's electronegative S atom. Certain amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, contain -SH groups, which help dtabilize the shape f the proteins.
amino acid cysteine.
Keytones contain a carbonyl group within the carbon skeleton. The carbonyl group is polar and hydrophilic due to it's electronegative O atom.
R R or
Aldehydes Have a carbonyl group at the end of the carbon skeleton.
Carboxylic acids contain a arboxyl group at the end of the carbon skeleton. all amino acids have a -COOH
group at one end. The negatively charged form predominates at the pH of body cells and is hydrophilic.
Ester Predominate in dietary dats and oils and also occur in our body triglycerides. Asprin is an ester of salicylic acid, a pain reliever molecule found in the bark of a willow tree.
Phospheates contain a a phosphate group (-PO2- 4) which is very hydrophilic due to the dual negative charges.
An important example is adenosine riphosphate (ATP), which transfers chemical energy between organic molecules during chemical reactions. (DNA,RNA)
Amines have an -NH2 group, which can as a base and pick up a hydrogen ion, giving the amino group a positive charge. At pH of the body fluids, most amino groups have a charge of 1+. All amino acids have an amino group at one end.