Phil 101 Ch1.2

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Mattyj1388
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173342
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Phil 101 Ch1.2
Updated:
2012-10-02 15:35:27
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Philosophy 101 USD
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general iformation, definitions, etc. Book: "A concise introduction to logic using traditional logic" by: Patric J. Huley: 11 edition
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  1. Factual Claim
    a claim that something is true: a claim that evidence or reasons are being presented.
  2. Inferential claim
    a claim that alleged evidence or reasons support or imply something.
  3. Argument from example
    an argument that purports to prove something by giving one or more examples of it.
  4. Conditional statement
    (1) an "if . . .ten" statement. (2) ...
  5. Antecedent
    the componant of a conditional statement immediately following the word "if".
  6. Consequent
    the component of a conditional statement immediately following the word "then"; the component of a conditional statement that is not the antecedent.
  7. Sufficient condition
    • the condition represented by the antecedent in a conditional statement.
    • ie: If X is a dog, then X is an animal.
  8. Necessary condition
    • The condition represented by the consequent in a conditional statement.
    • ie: If X is not an animal, then X is not a dog.
  9. Explanation
    an expression tht purports to shed light on some event or phenomenon.
  10. Explanandum
    the component of an explanation that describes the event or phenomenon to be explained.
  11. Explanans
    The component of an explanation that explains the event or phenomenon indicated by the explanandum.
  12. illustration
    An expression involving one or more examples that is intended to show what something means or how it is done.
  13. Expository passage
    a kind of discourse that begins with a topic sentence followed by one or more sentences that develope the topic sentence.
  14. "Since" is used as temporal and logical
    • "Since" used in a temporal form is not an argument.
    • ie: Since Edison invented the phonograpg, there have been many technological developments.
    • "Since" used logically is an argument.
    • ie: Since Edison invented the phonograph, he deserves credit for a major technological development.
  15. Simple noninferential passages
    • (not an argument) can be listed as:
    • Warning: Watch out that you don't slip on the ice.
    • Piece of advice:
    • Statement of belief OR opinion:
    • Loosely associated statements:
    • report:
  16. Exercise 1.2: Determine which of the following passages are arguments. For those that are, identify the conclusion. For those that are not, determine the kind of nonargument.
    1) The turkey vulture is called by that name because its red feathersless head resembles the head of a wild turkey.
    2) If the public education fails to improve the quality of instruction in both primary and secondary schools, then it is likely that it will lose additional students to the private sector in the years ahead.
    3) Freedom of the press is the most important of our constitutionally guaranteed freedoms. Without it, our other freedoms would be immediately threatened. Furthuremore, it provides the fulcrum for the advancement of new freedoms.
    4)
    • 1) The turkey vulture is called by that name because its red feathersless head resembles the head of a wild turkey. nonargument, explanation
    • 2) If the public education fails to improve the quality of instruction in both primary and secondary schools, then it is likely that it will lose additional students to the private sector in the years ahead. If . . . then
    • 3) Freedom of the press is the most important of our constitutionally guaranteed freedoms. Without it, our other freedoms would be immediately threatened. Furthuremore, it provides the fulcrum for the advancement of new freedoms.
    • 4)
  17. need Parts I, II, IV, V

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