Phil 101 Ch1.3

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Mattyj1388
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173349
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Phil 101 Ch1.3
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2012-10-02 18:26:34
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philosophy 101 USD
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general iformation, definitions, etc. Book: "A concise introduction to logic using traditional logic" by: Patric J. Huley: 11 edition
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  1. Deductive argument
    An argument incorperating the claim that it is impossable for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true
  2. Inductive argument
    An argument incorperating the claim that it is improbable that the conclusion is false given that the premises are true.
  3. argument based on mathmatics
    A deductive argument in which the conclusion depends on some purely arithmatic or geometric computation or measurment.
  4. argument from definition
    A deductive argument in which the conclusion is claimed to depend merely on the definition of some word or phrase used in the premise or conclusion.
  5. Categorical syllogism
    A syllogism in which all three statements are categorical propositions.
  6. Hypothetical syllogism
    A syllogism having a conditional statement for one or both of its premises.
  7. Disjuctive syllogism
    (1) A syllogism having a disjuctive statement for one or both of its premises.
  8. Argument from analogy
    An inductive argument that depends on the existence of a similarity between two things or states of affair.
  9. Generalization
    An inductive argument that proceeds from the knowledge of a select sample to some claim about the whole group.
  10. Prediction
    An inductive argument that proceeds from knowledge of some event in the relative past to a claim about some other event in the relative future.
  11. Argument from authority
    An inductive argument in which the conclusion rests on a statement made by some presumed authority or witness.
  12. Argument based on signs
    An inductive argument that preceeds from the knowledge of a sign to a claim about the thing or situation that the sign symbolizes.
  13. Casual inference
    An inductive inference that proceeds from knowledge of a cause to a claim about an effect, or from knowledge of an effect to a claim about a cause.
  14. Particular statement/proposition
    A proposition/statement that makes a claim about one or more (but not all) members of a class.
  15. General statement
    A statement that makes a claim about all the members of a class.
  16. Answer "true" or "false" to the following statements:
    1) In an inductive argument, it is intended that the conclusion contain more information than the premise.
    2) In an ductive argument, the conclusion  is not suppose to contain more information than the premise.
    3) The form of argumentation the arguer uses may allow one to determine whether an argument is inductive or deductive.
    4) The actual strength of the link between premises and conclusion may allow one to determine whether an argument is inductive or deductive.
    5) A geological proof is an example of an inductive argument.
    • 1) In an inductive argument, it is intended that the conclusion contain more information than the premise. True
    • 2) In an ductive argument, the conclusion  is not suppose to contain more information than the premise. True
    • 3) The form of argumentation the arguer uses may allow one to determine whether an argument is inductive or deductive. True
    • 4) The actual strength of the link between premises and conclusion may allow one to determine whether an argument is inductive or deductive. True
    • 5) A geological proof is an example of an inductive argument. False
  17. Answer "true" or "false" to the following statements:
    6) Most arguments based on statistical reasoning are deductive.
    7) If the conclusion of an argument follows merely from the definition of a word used in a premise, the argument is deductive.
    8) An argument that draws a conclusion about a thing based on that thing's similarity to something else is a deductive argument.
    9) An argument that draws a conclusion that something is true because someone has said that it is, is a deductive argument.
    10) An argument that presents two alternatives and eliminates one, leaving the other as the conclusion, is an inductive argument.
    • 6) Most arguments based on statistical reasoning are deductive. False
    • 7) If the conclusion of an argument follows merely from the definition of a word used in a premise, the argument is deductive. True
    • 8) An argument that draws a conclusion about a thing based on that thing's similarity to something else is a deductive argument. False
    • 9) An argument that draws a conclusion that something is true because someone has said that it is, is a deductive argument. False
    • 10) An argument that presents two alternatives and eliminates one, leaving the other as the conclusion, is an inductive argument. False
  18. Answer "true" or "false" to the following statements:
    11) An argument that proceeds from knowledge of a cause to knowledge of an effect is an inductive argument.
    12) If an argument contains the phrase "it defititely follows that," then we know for certain that the argument is deductive.
    13) An argument that predicts what will happen in the future, based on what has happened in the past, is an inductive argument.
    14) Inductive arguments always proceed from the particular to the general.
    15) Deductive arguments always proceed from the general to the particular.
    • 11) An argument that proceeds from knowledge of a cause to knowledge of an effect is an inductive argument. True
    • 12) If an argument contains the phrase "it defititely follows that," then we know for certain that the argument is deductive. False
    • 13) An argument that predicts what will happen in the future, based on what has happened in the past, is an inductive argument. True
    • 14) Inductive arguments always proceed from the particular to the general. False
    • 15) Deductive arguments always proceed from the general to the particular. False
  19. Need I, II

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