Marketing

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Author:
sxrich
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173353
Filename:
Marketing
Updated:
2012-09-25 17:47:43
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Chapter Five Understanding Consumer Behavior
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Marketing Test 1
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  1. Consumer Behavior
    actions a person takes in purchasing and using products and services
  2. Purchase Decision Process

    Five Stages
    • problem recognition
    • information search
    • alternative evaluation
    • purchase decision
    • postpurchase behavior
  3. Information Search

    Internal
    first you may scan your memory for previous experiences with products or brands
  4. Information Search

    External
    needed when past experience or knowledge is not enough, the risk of making the wrong decision is high, and the cost of gathering information is low
  5. Information Search

    External Primary Sources
    • personal sources, such as relatives and friends
    • public sources, such as product rating org.
    • marketer-demand sources, such as info from advertising companies
  6. Alternative Evaluation

    Evaluative Criteria
    represent both the objective attributes of a brand (such as a display) and the subjective one (such as prestige) you use to compare different products and brands
  7. Alternative Evaluation

    Consideration Set
    group of brands that a consumer would consider acceptable from among all the brands of which he or she is aware in the product class
  8. Purchase Decision

    Two Choices
    • from whom to buy
    • when to buy
  9. Postpurchase Behavior

    Satisfied vs. Unsatisfied Customer
    • satisfied customers tell 3 people
    • unsatisfied customers tell 9 people
  10. Postpurchase Behavior

    Cognitive Dissonance
    feeling of postpurchase psychological tension or anxiety
  11. Consumer Involvement & Problem-Solving Variations

    Involvement
    personal, social, and economic significance of a purchase to the consumer
  12. Consumer Involvement & Problem-Solving Variations

    Extended Problem Solving
    each of five stages of the consumer purchase decision process is used, with considerable time and effort devoted to the external information search and the identification and evaluation of alternative

    Example: Automobiles, Houses, Audio Systems
  13. Consumer Involvement & Problem-Solving Variations

    Limited Problem Solving
    consumers typically seek information or rely on a friend to help them evaluate alternatives

    Example: toaster, restaurant
  14. Consumer Involvement & Problem-Solving Variations

    Routine Problem Solving
    consumers recognize a problem, make a decision, and spend little effort seeking external information and evaluating alternatives

    Example: table salt, milk
  15. Involvement and Marketing Strategy

    Low-Involvement
    attention is placed on maintaining product quality, avoiding stockout situations, and using repetitive advertising messages to reinforce consumer's knowledge or assure buyers they have made the right choice
  16. Involvement and Marketing Strategy

    High Involvement
    Marketers know theire customers seek and process information about objective and subjective brand attributes
  17. Situational Influences

    5 Situational Influences
    • purchase task
    • social surroundings
    • physical surroundings
    • temporal effects
    • antecedent states
  18. Situational Influences

    Purchase Task
    Reason for engaging in the decision
  19. Situational Influences

    Social Surroundings
    other people present when a purchase decision is made, may also affect what is purchased
  20. Situational Influences

    Physical Surroundings
    decor, music, and crowding in retail stores may alter how purchase decisions are made
  21. Situational Influences

    Temporal Effects
    time of day or the amount of time available will influence where consumers have breakfast and lunch and what is ordered
  22. Situational Influences

    Antecedent States
    consuer's mood or amount of cash on hand, can influence purchase behavior and choice
  23. Motivation
    energizing force that stimulates behavior to satisfy a need
  24. Hierarchy of Needs
    • Physiological needs
    • Safety needs
    • Social needs
    • Personal needs
    • Self-actualization needs
  25. Hierarchy of Needs

    Physiological Needs
    basic to survival and must be satisfied first
  26. Hierarchy of Needs

    Safety Needs
    involve self-preservation as well as physical and financial well-being
  27. Hierarchy of Needs

    Social Needs
    concerned with love and friendship
  28. Hierarchy of Needs

    Personal Needs
    need for achievement, status, prestige, and self-respect
  29. Hierarchy of Needs

    Self-actualization Needs
    perfonal fullfillment
  30. Personality
    person's consistent behaviors or responses to recurring situations
  31. Self-concept
    way people see themselves and the way they believe others see them
  32. Perception
    process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the world
  33. Selective Perception
    filtering of exposure, comprehension, and retention

  34. Selective Exposure
    • occurs when people pay attention to messages that are consistent w/their
    • attitudes & beliefs & ignore messages that are inconsistent
  35. Selective Comprehension
    involves interpreting information so that it is consistent with your attitudes and beliefs
  36. Selective Retention
    consumers do not remember all the information they see, read, or hear, even minutes after exposure
  37. Subliminal Perception
    see or hear messages without being aware of them
  38. Perceived Risk
    anxiety felf when a consumer cannot anticipate possible negative outcome of a purchase
  39. Strategies to Reduce Perceived Risk
    • obtain seal of approval
    • secure endorsements from influential people
    • provide free trials of the product
    • giving extensive usage instructions
    • provide warranties and gaurantees
  40. Learning
    behaviors that result from repeated experience or reasoning
  41. Behavioral Learning
    process of developing automatic responses to a situation built up through repeated exposure
  42. Behavioral Learning

    Drive
    need that moves an individual to action
  43. Behavioral Learning

    Cue
    stimulus or symbol perceived by consumers
  44. Behavioral Learning

    Response
    action taken by a customer to satisfy the drive
  45. Behavioral Learning

    Reinforcement
    reward
  46. Cognitive Learning
    making connections b/w two or more ideas or simply observng the outcomes of others' behaviors and adjusting your own accordingly
  47. Brandy Loyalty
    favorable attitude toward and consistent purchase of a single brand over time
  48. Attitude Formation

    Attitude
    learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way

    shaped by our values and beliefs, which are learned
  49. Beliefs
    consumers' subjective perception of how a product or brand performs on different attribtutes

    based on personal experience, advertising, and discussions with other people
  50. Attitude Change

    3 Approaches
    • changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attributes
    • changing the perceived important of attributes
    • adding new attributes to the product
  51. Consumer Lifestyle
    mode of living that is identified by how people spend their time and resources, what they consider important in their environment, and what they think of themselves and the world around them
  52. Psychographics
    practice of combining psychology, lifestyle, and demographics, is often used to uncove consumer motivations for buying and using products and services
  53. VALS
    prominent psychographic system

    identifies 8 segments based on primary motivation for buying and having certain products and services and their resources
  54. Opinion Leaders
    Individuals who have social influence over others
  55. Word of Mouth
    people influencing each other in personal conversations
  56. Reference Groups
    people to whom an individual looks as a basis for self-appraisal or as a source of personal standards
  57. Reference Groups

    Membership Groups
    one to which an individual belongs to

    Example: frat, sorority, social clubs
  58. Reference Groups

    Aspiration Group
    one that a person wishes to be a member of or wishes to be identified with

    Example: professional society
  59. Reference Groups

    Dissociative Group
    one that a person wishes to maintain's distance from b/c of differences in values and behaviors
  60. Consumer Socialization
    process by which people acquire the skills, knowledge, and attitudes necessary to functon as consumers
  61. Family Life Cycle
    family's progression from formation to retirement, each phase bringing with it distinct purchasing behaviors
  62. Traditional Family
    married couple with children younger than 18 years
  63. Family Decision Making

    Spouse dominant
    either the husband or wife is mostly responsible for decision
  64. Family Decision Making

    Joint Decision Making
    most decisions are made by both husband and wife
  65. Family Decision Making

    Roles of Family
    • information gatherer
    • influencer
    • decision maker
    • purchaser
    • user
  66. Culture
    refers to the set of values, ideas, and attitutdes that is learned and shared among the members of a group
  67. Subcultures
    subgroups within the larger, or national, culture with unique values, ideas, and attitudes

    Example: Hispanics, African-Americans and Asian Americans

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