The Revolutionary Period
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What was new France? What were they known for?
- Louisiana and Canada
- Fur trading, worked well with Indians, Catholics
What was the French and Indian war fought over?
The ohio valley
What was the Albany Congress? What was the Albany Plan of Union? Did it work? Why was it important?
- 7 colonies ment to discuss the French and Indian War
- Franklin's Idea of uniting the colonies for the war
- It failed
- first effort to unite the colonies
What was Braddock's defeat?
French and Indians abush and defeat British (Braddock was british general)
What was the result of Braddock's defeat?
Colonist learned how to fight in america
What was the Battle of Quebec?
The turning point of the french and indian war-british started winning
What were the results of the French and Indian war?(6)
- Treaty of Paris (1763)- Britan got all the land east of the mississippi and Canada, Spain got West of Mississippi (Lousiana)
- French lost their claim in North America
- Colonist gain confidence
- British gained larger empire
- British got large debt and start taxing colonies
- force britian to change colonial policy
What was british colonial policy prior to 1763?
Merchantilism, Navigation Acts, Salutary Negclet
What was Mercantilism? What was it's purpose? Why was it important to the colonies?
- Theory that says nations wealth is based on it's supply of gold
- to make britian self sufficient
- Colonies could provide gold (but they didnt have any), raw materials, and markets
What was the triangular trade route? Who did it not include?
- The most profitable trade route of New England, Africa, and West Indies
- Did not include England
What did the Navigation Acts say?
all good coming or going out of colonies must go to england and pay a tax(duty)
What was Salutary Neglect?
Britian chose not to enforce the laws because it cost too much money
Why did Britian need to change?
needed money to pay debt and protect empire
What were the Writs of Assistance?
warrants for unanouced seaches and seizeures.
What was Pontaics Rebellion?
Indian uprising in ohio valley
What was the Proclamation of 1763?
response to Pontiacs rebellion that said settlers couldn't move west of the appalachins
Who were the paxton boys?
farmers in pennslyvania who were upset with pontiacs rebellion and starting killing indians.
What was the sugar act?
tax on sugar(trade). It lowered tax but would be enforced
What was the currency act?
colonies could not print paper money
What was the quatering act?
Colonists had to allow soldiers in their house
What was the stamp act? Why did the colonies oppose it? What was virtual represntation?
- tax on paper goods
- it was a direct tax- no taxation without repsentation
- Said every member of parliament represented every englishmen
How did the colonies oppose the stamp act?
- The Stamp act congress
- boycott of british goods
- sons of liberty is started by Sam Adams
- violent means of protest
What did parliament pass after repealing the stamp act?
Declatory act- said they could still pass laws in the colonies
What was the signifigance of the stamp act?
colonist believe they can make the british back down
What were townshed acts? What was the circular letter?
- tax on most imports including tea
- Sam Adams asks other colonies to join Mass. in resisting townshed acts
What did John Dickenson's Letters from a farmer in Pennslyvannia say?
colonies should govern themselves under British rule
What was the American Board of customs and trade?
set up to enforce the townshed acts
What was the Boston Massacure? What was the result?
- British troops fired into crowd of coloists killing 5
- calmed things down
What was the comittes of corespondence?
an effort to keep colonies informed about Mass.
What did the Tea Act do?
- an act to help the English East Indian co. sell it's tea.
- This gave a monopoly in america
- Lowered price of tea
- Colonists were upset becuase it was another attempt of the british to control colonies
What was the Boston tea party? What was the result?
- The sons of Liberty dressed as Indians and threw tea in harbor
- Last straw for british
What were the Coercive/ Intolerable Acts? What was the Quebec Act? What did this lead to?
- punished Mass. for Boston tea party
- extended quebecs territory to ohio valley
- First Continetal Congress
What were the Suffolk resolves?
Mass. should start preparing to defend themselves
What was the Continental Asssosication?
called for a boycott on british goods
What was the Second Continental Congress? How many colonies showed up? Who was president of it?
- ran the war effort- like a government
- all 13
- John Hancock
What was the Olive Branch Petition?
last effort to get britian to change their policy
Who was commander of continental army?
What did Thomas Paine's Common Sense do?
outlined reasons for Independence and conviced many americans to support independence
What were the purposes for the declaration of independece?
- to win support for revolution
- outlined a form of government
- declaration of war
- men were born with natural rights
- if government doesnt protect rights it can be overthrown
What was the reaction to the declaration of independce?
- divided america into 3 groups
- people in the middle
What were Americas weaknesses?
- no money
- no organized army
- no central government
What was americas major strength?
Foregin aid of france
What were british weaknesses?
- poor leadership
- lack of support
What did the Treaty of Paris(1783) do?
- British reconized US independence
- US gets everything east of missisippi except Fl. and new orleans
- spain got FL back
- US was to pay back debt to britian
- loyalists were to be given their property back
- british were to take troops out of the ohio valley
What were the social changes after revolution?
- promoted separtion of church and state
- anti- slavery movement gained support
- role of womeen change
- broke down class disctions
What did Jeffersons Statuate of Libery say?
said that no one could be forced to suppory a church or be punished for beleifs
How did the anti slavery movement gain support?
- in 1780 Pennslyvannia became the first state to outlaw slavery
- by 1804 every nothern state had passed laws for freeing of slaves
How did the role of women change?
rebublician motherhood-stressed the importance of a womens role in promoting the ideas of the new natiion
What politcial changes were made after the revolution?
- Washington resigned as commander in chief and allowed republic to form
- most states wrote new constitions
What did states give up in order for Aticles to be ratified?
How many votes for laws to be passed uner articles?
- 2/3 for law
- unanimois for ammendment
What could/ couldn't congress do under articles?
- could declare war, but not raise army
- make treaties, but not enforce them
- borrow money, but not tax or regulate commerce
What branches werent included in articles? Who had all the power?
- Excutive and judical
What were the US acomplishments under aritcles?
- Treaty of Paris(1783)
- Land Ordinace
- Northwest Ordiance
What was the Land Ordinace? How much of each township was set up or public schools?
- set up method for selling land
- one section
What were the US problems under the articles?
- US was in debt and government could not pay it off
- Continental money was worthless
- Congress could not regulate trade
- Shays rebellion
What was Shays rebellion?What was the result?
- Mass. farmers rebelled against Mass. government over high taxes
- proved weakness of the articles
What was the Annapolis Convention?
- 5 states meet to talk about articles probs.
- called for convention to revise art.
Who were the delagates at the constional convention?
- all states but RI
- rich white men
- Geroge Washington was president of the convention
- James Madison was the father of the constition
What was the purpose of the constitional convention?
write a new constituton
What desicsions were made at the constitutional convention?
- They would have a rebuplic
- There would be 3 branches of government
- federal system
- a stornger central government
What was the virgina plan?
base representation on population
what was the new jersey plan?
What was the three fifiths compromise?
counted three fifths of the slaves in a state
Under the new constituion could Congress tax imports or exports?
How would the predient be chosesn? If no one gets the majority vote what happens?
- electorial college
- it goes to house of representatives
How much of the states was required to ratify the constition?
who were the federalists?
why did the anti federalists oppose the constitution?
- had no bill of rights (***)
- president would become to powerful
- to much taxation
- took power away from states
Why did Virgina agree to ratify the constitution?
George Washington agreeed to run for predident
Who wrote the federalists papers? What was it sussposeed to do?
- Madison, Jeff. , and Jay
- Convince NY to ratify constition
What did Charles Beard's economic interp. of the constition say?
writers of the constittution wrote it to prtoect themseleves
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