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What are the nutritional
Anthropometric, Biochemical, Clinical, Dietary, Environmental
Pertaining to the measurement of body weight and the lengths, circumfirences, and thickness of parts of the body
Assessment focusing on biochemical functions (ex. concentrations of nutrient by-products, enzyme activities in blood or urine) related to a nutrients function.
Physical evidence of diet related disease. This type of assessment focuses on general appearence of the skin, eyes, and tongue, evidence of rapid hair lass; loss of sense of touch; loss of ability to cough and walk.
Assessment that focuses on one's typical food choices, relying mostly on the recounting of one's usual intake or a record of one's usual intake or a record of one's intake of the previous day.
Assessment that focuses on one's education and economic backround and other factors that affect one's ability to purchase , transport, and cook food and follow instructions given by health-care providers
single cause, specific symptoms
specific, biochemical block, decline in health
- restore to diet, regain normal function
- ex. scurvy, pellagra, beri beri
- multiple risk factors – genetics, lifestyle
- (including diet)
disease process slow, tends to remain
- CHD, cancer, osteoporosis,
- stroke, arthritis, diabetes
Effects of nutrients on the genome
Regulation of gene expression
- Effect of genetic variation on:
- nutrient metabolism
- response to food components
Institutional review boards (IRBs)
1.Risks reasonable in relation to benefits
3.Equitable selection of subjects
5.Privacy and confidentiality
6.Data and safety monitoring
Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC)
Animal equivalent of IRB
Rationale for animal use
Pain or distress
Consideration of alternatives
Distribution and determinants of diseases in human populations.
Study in which individuals who have the condition in question, such as lung cacer, are compared with individuals who do not have the condition.
Research that follows a healthy population over time, looking for indicators of the development of the disease.
Type of research that follows indviduals during a current course of treatment, in contrast with retrospective research, which examines the pat habits of individuals.
In medicine, a case report is a detailed report of the symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of an individual patient. Case reports may contain a demographic profile of the patient, but usually describe an unusual or novel occurrence.
Cross-sectional studies involve data collected at a defined time. They are often used to assess the prevalence of acute or chronic conditions, or to answer questions about the causes of disease or the results of medical intervention. They may also be described as censuses
A longitudinal study is a correlational research study that involves repeated observations of the same variables over long periods of time — often many decades. It is a type of observational study.
A crossover study
A crossover study (also referred to as a crossover trial) is a longitudinal study in which subjects receive a sequence of different treatments (or exposures). While crossover studies can beobservational studies, many important crossover studies are controlled experiments,
Partipants in an experiment who are not given the treatment being tested.
Fake treatment that seems like the experimental treatment; used to disguise whether a study participant is in the experimental or control group.
Journal that publishes research only after scientists who are not part of the study agree the study was well conducted and the results are fairly represented. Thus, the research has been approved by peers of the research team.
- in favor of dying
- males ratio/women's ratio
- Probability of Death
95% Confidence interval
- lthe range in which the investigators are
- 95% sure the real, population OR or RR falls
- If 95% CI includes 1.0, differences between groups are not usually statistically
Who formulates and publishes the DRIs?
- The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Food and Nutrition
- Includes all recommendations for safety
- and adequacy
- A.Estimations of average human requirements
- when data are adequate
- A.Recommendations when data are adequate to
- estimate human requirement
- Recommendations when data are inadequate
- to estimate human requirement
- A.Recommendations for maximum consumption,
- to avoid toxicity
Estimations of energy needs
Who formulates and publishes Dietary Guidelines for Americans?
- The U.S. Department of Agriculture
Alpha and beta
Alpha - down
Beta - up
3 – 10 sugar units
Examples: raffinose, stachyose
Food sources: beans, legumes
RDA: 130 g/d for adults
- Rationale: “EAR of 100 g/d for providing
- adequate energy for the brain, a CHO dependent organ” (RDA advisory committee)
AMDR = 45-65% of total energy
Simple sugars < 10% of energy intake
AIs for children < 1 yr
Functions of carbohydrates
Energy – some cells (RBC, brain, retina, kidney) obligate glucose users
- 50-100 g CHO prevents
- Electrolyte imbalance
Problems associated with excessively high
requires high fluid intake
hard and painful stool
binds important minerals (Ca, Zn, Fe)
intestinal gas, discomfort
insufficient energy intake in children
Effects of dietary fiber
Lower blood pressure
Increase excretion of bile acid, estrogen, and fecal carcinogens and procarcinogens
Promote weight loss
Primary Lactose intolerance
Genetic loss of expression of lactase gene. Not due to another disease.
- Temporary loss of lactase, develops as a
- result of another disease or treatment.
Type 1 diabetes
- Type 1
- (insulin dependent or juvenile onset; 5-10% of diabetes cases)
destruction of pancreatic beta cell
virus or foreign protein association
- Type 2
- (NIDDM, adult or obesity onset; 90-95% of cases)
Insulin receptors, insulin resistance
Correct obesity, often disappears
Amount of carbohydrate in a food multiplied by the glycemic index of that carbohydrate. The result is then divided by 100.
Ratio of the blood glucose response to a given food, compared with a standard (typically, glucose or white bread.)
Fatty acids - functions
•Essential fatty acids – linoleic, linolenic
- •Immune function, vision, cell membrane,
- eicosanoids (EPA, DHA)
Hormone like compounds synthesized from poly unsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid.
- In the body:
- Energy: main fuel for muscles at rest
Protect and insulate
Absorption and transport of fat soluble vitamins.
•Flavor and texture
- •Hormones - corticosteroids, estrogen,
- testosterone, vitamin D precursor
•Bile acid precursor
•Cell membrane structure
Food sources – essential fatty acids
•EPA, DHA – 2 fish meals per week
•Soybean oil, canola oil also supply ω-3s
fatty acids RDA
Lipoprotein made of dietary fats that are surrounded by a shell of cholestrol, phospolipids, and protiens. Made component is triglycerides
•To decrease LDL
–Decrease sat and trans fat
–Increase mono and poly fats
–Decrease dietary cholesterol (for some)
–Increase soluble fiber
•To increase HDL
–No good way
–Niacin most effective (25% or more)
Excessive Trans Fatty Acids
•Raise LDL, lower HDL
•Increase CHD risk
•Current intake ~3% of total kcals
•Consumption relatively constant.