NDFS 200 exam 1

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NDFS 200 exam 1
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2012-09-25 18:30:57
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NDFS 200 exam 1
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  1.  What are the nutritional
    assessment ABCDEs?
    Anthropometric,  Biochemical,  Clinical,  Dietary,  Environmental
  2. Anthropometric Assesment
    Pertaining to the measurement of body weight and the lengths, circumfirences, and thickness of parts of the body
  3. biochemical assessment 
    Assessment focusing on biochemical functions (ex. concentrations of nutrient by-products, enzyme activities in blood or urine) related to a nutrients function. 
  4. Clinical Assessment
    Physical evidence of diet related disease.  This type of assessment focuses on general appearence of the skin, eyes, and tongue, evidence of rapid hair lass; loss of sense of touch; loss of ability to cough and walk.
  5. Dietary Assessment 
    Assessment that focuses on one's typical food choices, relying mostly on the recounting of one's usual intake or a record of one's usual intake or a record of one's intake of the previous day.
  6. Enviromental Assessment 
    Assessment that focuses on one's education and economic backround and other factors that affect one's ability to purchase  , transport, and cook food and follow instructions given by health-care providers
  7. Deficiency disease
    single cause, specific symptoms

    specific, biochemical block, decline in health

    • restore to diet, regain normal function
    • ex. scurvy, pellagra, beri beri
  8. pChronic disease
    • multiple risk factors – genetics, lifestyle
    • (including diet)

    disease process slow, tends to remain

    • CHD, cancer, osteoporosis,
    • stroke, arthritis, diabetes 
  9. Nutrigenomics
    Effects of nutrients on the genome

    Regulation of gene expression
  10. Nutrigenetics
    • Effect of genetic variation on:
    • nutrient metabolism
    • diet-disease
    • response to food components
  11. Institutional review boards (IRBs)
    1.Risks reasonable in relation to benefits

    2.Minimize risk

    3.Equitable selection of subjects

    4.Informed consent

    5.Privacy and confidentiality

    6.Data and safety monitoring
  12. Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC)
    Animal equivalent of IRB

    Rationale for animal use

    Surgery

    Pain or distress

    Consideration of alternatives

    Anesthesia, analgesia

    Euthanasia
  13. Epidemiology
    Distribution and determinants of diseases in human populations.
  14. Case-control studies
    Study in which individuals who have the condition in question, such as lung cacer, are compared with individuals who do not have the condition.
  15. Cohort Study
    Research that follows a healthy population over time, looking for indicators of the development of the disease. 
  16. Prospective
     Type of research that follows indviduals during a current course of treatment, in contrast with retrospective research, which examines the pat habits of individuals.
  17. Case report
    In medicine, a case report is a detailed report of the symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of an individual patient. Case reports may contain a demographic profile of the patient, but usually describe an unusual or novel occurrence.
  18. Cross-sectional
    Cross-sectional studies involve data collected at a defined time. They are often used to assess the prevalence of acute or chronic conditions, or to answer questions about the causes of disease or the results of medical intervention. They may also be described as censuses
  19. Longitudinal
    A longitudinal study is a correlational research study that involves repeated observations of the same variables over long periods of time — often many decades. It is a type of observational study.
  20. A crossover study
    A crossover study (also referred to as a crossover trial) is a longitudinal study in which subjects receive a sequence of different treatments (or exposures). While crossover studies can beobservational studies, many important crossover studies are controlled experiments,
  21. Control Groups
    Partipants in an experiment who are not given the treatment being tested.
  22. placebo
    Fake treatment that seems like the experimental treatment; used to disguise whether a study participant is in the experimental or control group.
  23. Peer-Review Journal
    Journal that publishes research only after scientists who are not part of the study agree the study was well conducted and the results are fairly represented.  Thus, the research has been approved by peers of the research team.  
  24. Odds
    ratio 
    • in favor of dying
    • dead/survived
    • males ratio/women's ratio 
  25. Relative Risk 
    • Probability of Death 
    • alive/total
    • male/female
  26. 95% Confidence interval
    • lthe range in which the investigators are
    • 95% sure the real, population OR or RR falls

    • If 95% CI includes 1.0, differences between groups are not usually statistically
    • significant
  27. Who formulates and publishes the DRIs?
    • The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Food and Nutrition
    • Board
  28. 1.DRIs
    • Includes all recommendations for safety
    • and adequacy
  29. EARs
    • A.Estimations of average human requirements
    • when data are adequate
  30. RDAs
    • A.Recommendations when data are adequate to
    • estimate human requirement
  31. AIs
    • Recommendations when data are inadequate
    • to estimate human requirement
  32. ULs
    • A.Recommendations for maximum consumption,
    • to avoid toxicity
  33. EERs
    Estimations of energy needs
  34. Who formulates and publishes Dietary Guidelines for Americans?
    • The U.S. Department of Agriculture
    • (USDA)
  35. Galactose
  36. Glucose
  37. Fructose
  38. Alpha and beta
    —Alpha - down

    —Beta - up
  39. Maltose
  40. sucrose
  41. Lactose
  42. Oligosaccharides
    —3 – 10 sugar units

    —Examples: raffinose, stachyose

    —Food sources: beans, legumes
  43. Carbohydrate RDA
    —RDA: 130 g/d for adults

    • —Rationale: “EAR of 100 g/d for providing
    • adequate energy for the brain, a CHO dependent organ” (RDA advisory committee)

    —AMDR = 45-65% of total energy

    —Simple sugars < 10% of energy intake

    —AIs for children < 1 yr
  44. Fiber AI
  45. Functions of carbohydrates
    —Energy – some cells (RBC, brain, retina, kidney) obligate glucose users

    —Protein sparing

    —Prevent ketosis
  46. Ketosis
    • —50-100 g CHO prevents
    • —Electrolyte imbalance
  47. Soluble Fiber
  48. Insoluble Fiber
  49. Problems associated with excessively high
    fiber diets
    —60 g/day:

    —requires high fluid intake

    —hard and painful stool

    —binds important minerals (Ca, Zn, Fe)

    —intestinal gas, discomfort

    —insufficient energy intake in children
  50. Effects of dietary fiber 
    —Lower blood pressure

    —Increase excretion of bile acid, estrogen, and fecal carcinogens and procarcinogens

    —Anti-inflammatory properties

    —Promote weight loss
  51. Primary —Lactose intolerance
    —Genetic loss of expression of lactase gene.  Not due to another disease.
  52. Secondary—Lactose intolerance
    • —Temporary loss of lactase, develops as a
    • result of another disease or treatment.
  53. Type 1 diabetes
    • —Type 1 
    • (insulin dependent or juvenile onset; 5-10% of diabetes cases)

    —destruction of pancreatic beta cell

    —virus or foreign protein association
  54. Type
    2 diabetes
    • —Type 2 
    • (NIDDM, adult or obesity onset; 90-95% of cases)

    —Insulin receptors, insulin resistance

    —Correct obesity, often disappears
  55. Glycemic load
    Amount of carbohydrate in a food multiplied by the glycemic index of that carbohydrate.  The result is then divided by 100.
  56. Glycemic
    Index
    Ratio of the blood glucose response to a given food, compared with a standard (typically, glucose or white bread.)
  57. Fatty Acid
  58. Triglycerides
    Triglycerides
  59. Phospholipids
    Phospholipids
  60. Sterols
  61. Fatty acids - functions
    •Essential fatty acids – linoleic, linolenic

    • •Immune function, vision, cell membrane,
    • eicosanoids (EPA, DHA)

    •Deficiency
  62. eicosanoids 
    Hormone like compounds synthesized from poly unsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid.
  63. Triglycerides
    - functions
    • In the body:
    • Energy: main fuel for muscles at rest

    Energy storage

    Protect and insulate

    Absorption and transport of fat soluble vitamins.

    In food

    •Satiety

    •Flavor and texture
  64. Phospholipids
    - functions
    Functions

    1.Cell membranes

    2.Emulsifiers

    3.Micelle formation
  65. Sterols- functions
    • •Hormones - corticosteroids, estrogen,
    • testosterone, vitamin D precursor

    •Bile acid precursor

    •Cell membrane structure
  66. Food sources – essential fatty acids
    •EPA, DHA – 2 fish meals per week

    •Soybean oil, canola oil also supply ω-3s
  67. Essential
    fatty acids RDA
  68. Chylomicron
    Lipoprotein made of dietary fats that are surrounded by a shell of cholestrol, phospolipids, and protiens.  Made component is triglycerides
  69. •To decrease LDL
    –Decrease sat and trans fat

    –Increase mono and poly fats

    –Decrease dietary cholesterol (for some)

    –Increase soluble fiber
  70. •To increase HDL
    –No good way

    –Lose weight

    –Niacin most effective (25% or more)
  71. Excessive Trans Fatty Acids
    •Raise LDL, lower HDL

    •Increase CHD risk

    •Current intake ~3% of total kcals

    •Consumption relatively constant.

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