GI part 2 diarrhea and constipation.txt

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GI part 2 diarrhea and constipation.txt
2012-09-25 18:31:23
GI part

GI part 2 diarrhea and constipation
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  1. Diarrhea
    • loose, watery stool occurring more frequently than usual
    • consequence of rapid passage of small intestinal contents through the large intestines leading to increased water and electrolyte losses
    • may last for hours, days or weeks
    • regardless of cause, results from either increased intestinal motility (peristalsis) or decreased water absorption by mucosal cells
  2. Triggers of diarrhea
    • anxiety and stress
    • intestinal infections
    • food poisoning
    • medications
    • lactose intolerance
    • fructose
    • artificial sweeteners
    • abdominal or gall bladder surgery
    • other digestive disorders
  3. Treatments of diarrhea
    • medications that decrease intestinal motility
    • absorbents
    • adsorbents
  4. Medications that decrease intestinal motility
    • opiates
    • opiate-related drugs
  5. Absorbents
    • oral medications that absorb water in small and large intestines, making stools less watery
    • ex - polycarbophils
  6. Adsorbents
    • oral medications that coat wall of the GI tract to adsorb bacteria or toxins causing diarrhea
    • ex - attapulgites (Kaolin + Pectin = Kaopectate)
    • ex - Bismuth subsalicylates (Pepto-bismal)
  7. Bile acid sequestrants
    • medications used to reduce bile-induced diarrhea in people who have had their gallbladder removed
    • ex - colestipol
    • ex - cholestyramine
  8. Antibiotics for diarrhea
    used to treat bacterial-induced or traveler's diarrhea
  9. Probiotics for diarrhea
    bacteria used to help maintain the natural balance of organisms in the intestines
  10. Somatostatin analogue
    used to treat severe diarrhea associated with certain intestinal tumors and AIDS
  11. Constipation
    due to infrequent bowel movements, passage of hard and dry stools or straining during bowel movements
  12. Nonpharmacologicals treatments for constipation
    • bulk fiber in diet
    • exercise
    • proper hydration
    • develop routine bowel habits
  13. Pharmacological treatments for constipation
    • osmotic laxatives (pull water into colon to increase fecal bulk and stimulate peristalsis)
    • stimulant laxatives (irrittate nerve endings in intestinal mucosa and increase peristalsis)
    • bulk-forming natural laxatives (promote water movement into the large intestines, increasing fecal bulk and peristalsis)
    • emollient laxatives (lubricants used to decrease straining)
    • cathartics (promote soft-to-watery stools - hyperosmotic solutions using salts and sugar alcohols)
  14. Hemorrhoids
    • painful, swollen veins in the lower portion of the rectum or anus
    • result in increased pressure in the veins of the anus
  15. Causes of hemorrhoids
    • pregnancy and after childbirth
    • straining during bowel movements
    • constipation
    • sitting for long periods of time
    • anal infections
  16. Symptoms of hemorrhoids
    • anal itching
    • anal ache or pain, especially while sitting
    • bright red blood on the toilet tissue, stool or in the toilet bowl
    • pain during bowel movements
    • one or more hard, tender lumps near the anus
  17. Treatments of hemorrhoids
    • corticosteroid creams
    • lidocaine hemorrhoid creams
    • witch hazel
    • sitz baths
    • stool softeners
    • infrared coagulation
    • rubber band ligation
    • hemorrhoidectomy