Public Health test 2

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Public Health test 2
2012-10-14 21:40:23

ch. 15,16
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  1. what is nicotine?
    • addictive absorbed by the linings of the mouth
    • produces enhanced energy & alertness w/calming effect
  2. what is second hand smoke?
    someone who breathes in smoke just like smokers
  3. what is tar?
    provides flavor in cigarette smoke
  4. what is the fairness doctrine?
    counteracted the tobacco companies ads
  5. what did the master settlement agreement (MSA) do
    • got major tobacco companies to stop advertizing towards children
    • industry agreed to restrict on advertising
  6. what is the "truth campaign"?
    campaigns against smoking targeting at youth
  7. top two killers in the united states
    • smoking
    • obesity
  8. what is a enviromental problem with smoking?
    second hand smoke
  9. why was there an increase in smoking?
    industrial revolution- produced by machines
  10. when did first surgeon generals warning come out about smoking?
  11. what did Mr.Butts have to do with smoking?
    leaked information to a scientist that the tobacco company knew the effects of smoking
  12. what did california as a tobacco control program do?
    mandated mass methods for effective ways to stop smoking
  13. for the prevelance different races smoking what does it have to do with?
  14. why do tobacco companies target youth?
    need to recruit 2 million smokers a year to replace those that quit or die
  15. why were taxes raised on ciggerates?
    • teenagers are sensative to price
    • cali used it to fund tobacco control programs
  16. what did californias control program do that made cigerettes decline
    • education
    • mandate mass media
  17. what is body mass index?
    calculated by dividing a persons wt in kg and squaring height in meters
  18. what is waist to hip ratio? 
    waist measured at smallest point (hips) and at widest point (butt)
  19. what is obesity?
    complex condition influenced by genes as well as individual and social factors
  20. why is obesity going to be hard to change?
    • more behavioral
    • eating habits ingrained
    • SES
  21. health risks of obesity?
    • cardiovascular
    • diabetes
    • some cancer
    • arthritis
  22. what are some enviromental factors that discourage americans from eating and exercising correctly
    • to far away
    • to expensive
    • lack of taste
  23. injury pyramid?
    • deaths
    • hosptilizations
    • emergency visits
    • episodes of injuries reported
  24. the 3 E's of injury prevention
    • education
    • emforcement
    • engineering
  25. national highway traffic safety administration?
    a law passed to empower set safety standards for new cars such as seat belts and dashboard padding
  26. what is occupational safety and health adminstration?
    law passed to empower safety standards, inspect workplaces, and impose penalties for workplace hazards
  27. what are injuries a problem when a young person dies?
    years of potential life loss
  28. two categories of injury/death
    • unitentional
    • intentional
    • -homicide
    • suicide
  29. what is chain of causation for injuries?
    • host- you
    • primary prevention -DD
    • secondary prevention - seatbelt
    • tertiary prevention - ambulance
  30. who made the new safety rules for automobiles?
    ralph nadar
  31. what is the strongest political public health issue with injuries?
  32. what is the infant mortality rate?
    indicator of health status of a population
  33. what is low birth weight?
    born under 5.5 lbs
  34. what is the infant mortality rate?
    infants dealth with in first year per 1000 live births
  35. what is sudden infant death syndrome?
    unexpected death after being born healthy related to sleeping on stomach
  36. what is WIC?
    provides vouchers for nutritious foods for pregnant women, lactating women, and children up to 5 years old
  37. how to prevent low birth wt?
    prenatal care
  38. what is contrversal in contraception?
    whether is should be used or not
  39. what are carcinogens?
    chemicals that effect someones health
  40. what are neurotoxins?
    chemicals that are hard to reconize because act over long period of time
  41. what are polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's)
    • enviromental pesticides
    • chemicals used in sealing systems
    • enter through discharge of industrial waste
    • most widespread chemical contaminant
  42. what is the role of the goverment in envirmental health?
    provide water, sewage systems that are clean
  43. what is occupational exposure to workers issues?
    exposed to large amounts of toxins on a regualar basis
  44. what are issues in safe setting standards?
    ensuring the safety of the enviroment
  45. what is acid rain?
    • produced by two common pollutants - sulfer dioxide & nitrogen dioxide
    • react with water to form sulfric acid and nitric acid
  46. what are chloroflurocarbins?
    delepte ozone layer causing risks for the earth
  47. what are the criteria air pollutants?
    pollutants that are common and found all over
  48. what is the greenhouse effect?
    • carbon dioxide = in glass of green house
    • sunlight gets trapped in side
  49. what is the ozone?
    highly reactive varient of oxygen
  50. what is the ozone layer?
    manifestation of global effects of certain air pollutants
  51. what is particulate matter?
    • most visible form of air pollution
    • ex. soot
  52. what is radon?
    produced by natural radioactive decay of uranium
  53. what is sulfurdioxide?
    • produced by combustion of sulfer - containing fuels
    • ex. coal
  54. what is carbon dioxide?
    • highly toxic gas
    • most produced by motor vehicle exhaust
  55. what is nitrogen oxides?
    chemicals responsible for yellow brown smog
  56. what is lead?
    highly toxic metal that can damage the nervous system
  57. what is indoor air quality?
    concentrations of many pollutants trapped inside a building
  58. what are strategies for meeting standards?
    • each chemical must be regulated seperatly
    • each must have significant economic impact
  59. public health is an intersection between ____ and ____
    politics and science
  60. what is the gov't role in enviromental health?
    • standards and regulations
    • services
  61. what is the cause of pollution?
  62. where did mercury come from?
    coal burning power plants
  63. what did lead come from?
    lead pipes
  64. why are asbestos used?
    fire resistance
  65. what are factory farms?
    animals crowded together and tended by automated systems
  66. what do factory farms produce?
    large volumes of wastes- lagoons
  67. what does overregulation cause?
  68. what are air criteria air pollutants?
    • particulate matter
    • sulfer dioxide
    • carbon monoxide
    • nitrogen oxide
    • ozone
    • lead
  69. what does particulate matter do?
    smaller particles penetrate deeper into lungs
  70. what does sulfur dioxide do?
    • irritates respitory tract
    • creates acid rain- kills forest and fish
  71. what does nitrogen oxide do?
    • acid rain
    • caused by motor vehicles
  72. what is the ozone produced by?
    sunlight acting on other pollutants
  73. what are some strategies for motor vehicles?
    • public transportation
    • tailpipe limits
    • inspection of car
  74. what are strategies for industrial sources?
    • scrubber on smokestacks
    • less polluting fuels
  75. what is the emergency planning and community right to know act?
    have to publish results to see how much a business is polluting
  76. what are some problems with indoor air quality?
    • tobacco smoke
    • radon- basements
    • formaldehyde
  77. what are the global effects of air pollution?
    acid rain damaging
  78. what is the clean water act?
    lakes and rivers should be fishable and swimmable
  79. what is the safe drinking water act?
    EPA set standards for local systems
  80. what is point source pollution?
    identify source of pollution
  81. what is nonpoint pollution?
    ways to remove water
  82. what are some dilemmas with compliance?
    try to protect watershed
  83. what is involved with a sanitary landfill?
    • dry clay
    • lined with plastic
    • drain for liquids
    • vents to control gases
    • tipping fee
  84. what are the three R's
    • reduce
    • reuse
    • recycle
  85. what was love canal?
    houses built on industrial waste dump
  86. what is times beach?
    agent orange in oil sprayed onto dirt roads
  87. what are two hazaderous wastes?
    biological and radiological
  88. what is a superfund?
    • emergency cleanup of old waste sites
    • paid for by a tax on industry
  89. where does coal ash come from?
    left over from burning coal
  90. what is NIMBY?
    • not in my backyard
    • make sense of what to do
  91. what is phase 1 in drugs testing
    new drug is given to a small number of people who are extensively tested to measure absorption, distribtion, metabolism, excretion and to look for side effects and toxicties
  92. what is phase 2 in drug testing?
    tests a larger number of patients for signs that the new drug is effective
  93. what is phase 3 in drug testing?
    full scale controlled trial - assigned randomly to two groups
  94. what is the j-curve of population growth?
    population expands rapidly past the carrying capacity and then crashes because once the carrying capacity is exceeded, the enviroment is degraded and the carrying capacity is reduced
  95. what is the s-curve of population growth?
    enviromental pressures increase gradually as the population approches the number known as the carrying capacity- the number of organisms that can be supported in a given enviroment without degrading the enviroment
  96. what is HACCP?
    • preventative approach to meat and seafood
    • analysis of every step in the process of food productions, processing, and preperations
  97. what causes food borne illnesses?
    contaiminated food with bacteria, viruses and parasites due to inappropriate sanitations and food handling
  98. what is the FDA ?
    ensure foods are safe, wholesome and properly labeled
  99. what is the USDA?
    meat and poultry foods are safe, wholesome and properly labeled
  100. what is the NDA?
    new drug application for an investigational new drug providing evidence that the drug has the desired effect in animal and satisfies some basic safety criteria
  101. what is carrying capacity?
    population size that the earth can support without downgrading
  102. demographic tranistion?
    birth rates tend to fall in response to falling death rates
  103. what is global warming?
    an effect of greenhouse effect
  104. what are greenhouse gases?
    gas that absorbs radiation of specific wave lengths
  105. what is the ozone layer?
    protects the earths surface from ultraviolet radiation
  106. why use medical care?
    • immunizations
    • prenatal care
    • testing for risk factors
    • treat injuries
    • deal with failures of public health
  107. when is medical care a public health responsibility?
    • preventing spread of communicable diseases
    • emergency services
  108. how is medical care paid for in US?
    • fee for service
    • hospital has flat rate
    • submit bill to insurance
  109. what is medicare?
    provides insurance for elderly and disabled youth
  110. what is medicaid?
    welfare type program for the poor
  111. what is licensing and regulation?
    • providing high quality care
    • disipline practioners for misconduct
  112. ethical issues in medical care?
    • abortion
    • assisted suicide
    • right to die- karen ann quilin- nancy cruzan
    • baby doe rules
  113. what are ethical issues in medical resources allocation?
    End stage renal disease- funded dialysis tx for all americans without selection critera
  114. what are baby doe rules?
    mandated tx of all new borns with birth defects
  115. what is community health center?
    another source of basic medical care for the poor
  116. what is fee for service
    permits doctor to make decisions about patients care without considering cost
  117. why do cost rise in medical care?
    • aging population
    • new technology
    • administration
    • many providers
    • fee for service
  118. what are the attempts to control cost of medical care?
    limit new facilites and technology
  119. what is managed care?
    monitor patients health and evaulate quality of care
  120. what is the managed care backlash?
    loss of ability to manage care in cost concious way
  121. what is rationing?
    trying to cover more people by limiting services
  122. what is diagnosis related group?
    amount based on the illness category of the patient
  123. what is HMO's?
    insurer and provider
  124. what is PPO?
    more choices, health insurance less affordable
  125. what is the oregon plan?
    public and private partnership to ensure access to health care for all of orgeon
  126. what is Agency for Health Care Policy & Research
    guidelines for treatment
  127. what is health services research?
    small area analysis- large variations in practice style by geographical area
  128. what is outcomes research?
    analysis data generated by everyday practice of medicine
  129. what is small area analysis?
    more variation for conditions on which evidence for appropriate therapy exists
  130. what is the field of dreams effect?
    • avaiablity of services leads to more use of these services
    • more surgeons more surgerys
  131. what is the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA)?
    the more surgeries that are done the better the surgery getst done
  132. What is the relative importance of medical care
    for public health?
    • care plans are easier to evaluate than other plans
    • lead to improvement in outcomes
  133. what is the Compression of Morbidity     ?
    live till you die at the end of life
  134. what is the Compression of Mortality?
    dying towards the end of your life
  135. what is Estrogen Replacement Therapy?
    believed to have anti-aging effects
  136. what is Osteoporosis?
    risk of broken bones leading to disability
  137. what is Alzheimer’s Disease & Dementia?
    • memory loss
    • risk increase with increase age
  138. Identify the trends of the aging of the population?
    • people are living longer
    • more females
  139. What are the top 5 causes of death for the
    • alzheimers
    • influenza
    • respitory problems
    • cerebrovascular disease
  140. What are general approaches to maximizing health
    in old age?
    diet and exercise
  141. What issues exist concerning medical costs of
    the elderly?
    • system growing at slower pace
    • costs are less predictable
  142. what is the Incident Commend System (ICS)
    puts one person in charge for managing and coordinating the response at the scene
  143. what are in the Category A Bioterrorism Agents
    • small pox
    • anthrax
    • plague
  144. what is the Strategic National Stockpile (SNS)
    includes medical supplies antibiotics vaccines and antidotes for chemical agents
  145. What was the greatest failure in New York City’s response to the World Trade Center Attacks?
    failure of communication and coordination
  146. what is a diaster plan (triage)?
    • plan for good communication
    • focus on the order of who should be attended to first
    • immediate- right now
    • delayed- wait
    • expectant- going to die
  147. what is the biggest problem when it comes to bioterrism preparedness?
    reconize when under attack
  148. what is the model state emergency health powers act?
    suggested provisions include measures to encourage planning for emergencies, survalliance, managing property to ensure availability of vaccines and hospitals
  149. what are clues of survalliance that someone/something is being attacked?
    • emergency room visits
    • calls to 911
    • pharmacy records
    • vetinary diseases
  150. what is Healthy People 2000 ?
    • objectives set targets for individual behavioral change, enviromental, and regulatory protections and access to preventive health services
    • quality of life
    • equal health
  151. what is the Healthy People 2010?
    • quality and years of healthy life
    • eliminate disparities
  152. What are the top 10 public health achievements of the 20th century?
    • routine vaccines
    • safer workplaces
    • safer and healthier foods
    • healthier mothers and babies
    • fluoride in water
    • control of infectious disease
  153. List the challenges for public health for the 21st century?
    • climate change
    • rising cost of medical care for aging population
    • understanding and altering human behavior
    • renewed threats from infectious diseases
  154. what is the PHIN?
    what are the five componants?
    • framework to improve the capacity of public health to use and exchange information electronically by promoting the use of standards and defining the functional and technical requirements.
    • biosurviallance
    • management of outbreaks
    • exchange of data
    • promoting collaboration
    • build local tracking networks