Music Terms 8-14

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suttonl
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173439
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Music Terms 8-14
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2012-09-25 21:53:24
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music appreciation test chapters 7-14
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  1. HUMANISM
    Belief that people are something more than a mere condit for gifts descending from heaven, that they have the capacity to create many things good and beautiful.
  2. MOTET (Renaissance)
    compostition for a choir, intended to be sung either in a church or chapel
  3. A CAPPELLA
    literally "in the chapel", performed by voices alone without any instrumental accompaniment
  4. IMITATION
    procedure whereby one or more voices duplicate in turn the notes of a melody
  5. COUNTER-REFORMATION (1525-1594)
    reform movement that promoted more conservative, austere approach to art, Ex. Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
  6. SISTINE CHAPEL
    the Popes private chapel within his Vatican apartments
  7. COUNCIL OF TRENT (1545-1563)
    two decade long confernce at which leading cardinals and bishops undertook a reform of the Roman Catholic Church
  8. PAVANE
    most popular type of dance in 16th century, slow gliding dance in duple meter
  9. GALLIARD
    a fast, leaping dance in triple meter
  10. MADRIGAL
    piece of several solo voices (4-5) that sets a vernacular poem, most often about love, to music.
  11. WORD PAINTING
    depicting the text by means of a descriptive musical gesture, whether subtly or jokingly
  12. MADRIGALISMS
    musical cliches such as a falling melody for "swoon" and a dissonance for "pain"
  13. FALSETTO
    assign all parts of choir to adult males who sang in "head voice"
  14. CASTRATO
    literally "castrated male", could produce as much volume as two falsettists
  15. BAROQUE (1600-1750)
    describes the arts from that time period, held a negative connotation until twentieth century when works of Vivaldi and Bach became appreciated
  16. DOCTRINE OF AFFECTIONS
    different musical moods could and should be used to influence emotions, or affections, of listener
  17. MONODY
    new kind of solo singing, singer stepped forward and was accompanied by few supporting instruments
  18. BASSO CONTINUO
    bass-driven, chordal support in Baroque music, usually the harpsichord and low string instruments
  19. FIGURED BASS
    numerical shorthand placed below the bass line
  20. TERRACED DYNAMICS
    practice of shifting the volume of sound suddenly from one level to another
  21. OPERA
    requires union of music, drama, scenery, costumes, and often dance.
  22. LIBRETTO
    literally "little book", text of an opera, written by a poet working with the composer
  23. RECITATIVE
    simplest type of monody, musically heightened speech through which plot is communicated to audience
  24. ARIA
    more lyrical type of monody, more passionate, expansive, and tuneful than recitative. Tends to have clear meter and more regular rhythms 
  25. ARIOSO
    manner of singing halfway between aria and recitative, more declamatory than an aria but has a less rapid fire delivery than recitative
  26. TOCCATA
    instrumental piece requiring great technical dexterity of performers, instrumental showpiece
  27. CHAMBER MUSIC
    music for soloists performed in the home or small auditorium
  28. CHAMBER CANTATA
    emphasized accompanied solo singing, and the subject matter usually concerned  unrequited love or the heroes/heroines of ancient history and mythology
  29. OSTINATO
    melody, harmony, or rhythm that repeats continually throughout a musical composition
  30. BASSO OSTINATO
    When the repetition occurs in the bass
  31. GROUND BASS
    What English composers called basso ostinato, because it provided solid foundation for entire composition
  32. IDIOMATIC WRITING
    exploits the strengths and avoids the weaknesses of particular voices and instruments
  33. ORCHESTRA
    ensemble of musicians, organized around a core of strings, with added woodwinds and brasses, playing under a leader
  34. OVERTURE
    instrumental piece that precedes and "opens" some larger composition such as an opera
  35. FRENCH OVERTURE
    consisted of two parts, the first was set in a slow duple meter, while second was in a fast triple meter
  36. SONATA
    music for the home with just one player per part
  37. CHAMBER SONATA
    Baroque sonata with dance movements, consisted of four movements with alternating tempo, slow-fast-slow-fast
  38. SOLO SONATA
    written either for  solo keyboard instrument ex. harpsichord, or solo melody instrument ex. violin, 3 musicians needed violoinist and 2 basso continuo performers
  39. TRIO SONATA
    consists of 3 musical lines, two melody instruments plus bass
  40. OPUS
    Latin word meaning work
  41. WALKING BASS
    bass that moves at moderate, steady pace, mostly in equal note values and often stepwise up or down the scale
  42. CONCERTO
    musical composition marked by friendly contest or competition between a soloist and an orchestra
  43. SOLO CONCERTO
    when only one soloist confronts the orchestra
  44. CONCERTO GROSSO
    when a small group of soloistsworks together against an orchestra
  45. CONCERTINO
    2-4 soloists literally means little concert
  46. TUTTI
    literally means "all" or "everybody" when both groups are playing together and make up the whole orchestra
  47. RITORNELLO FORM
    all or part of the main theme, the ritornello, returns again and again, played by the tutti/ full orchestra
  48. MELODIC SEQUENCE
    repetition of a musical motive at successively higher or lower degrees of the scale
  49. SUBJECT
    The theme in a FUGUE
  50. EXPOSITION
    at the outset, each voise presents the subject in turn, and this successive presentation is exposition
  51. FUGUE
    composition for 2-5 parts played or sung by voices/instruments, which begins with a presentation of a subject in imitation (expostion), continues with modulating passages (episodes), and ends with strong affirmation of tonic key
  52. EPISODES
    freer sections, where the subject is not heard in its entirety
  53. PEDAL POINT
    note, usually in the bass, that is sustained (repeated) for a time while harmonies change around it
  54. CADENZA
    showy passage for a soloist alone toward the end of a movement in a concerto
  55. CHURCH CANTATA
    multimovement sacred work including aria, ariosos, and recitatives, performed by vocal soloists, a chorus, and small orchestra
  56. CHORALE
    spiritual melody or religious folksong of the the Lutheran church, what other denominations would call a hymn
  57. DA CAPO FORM
    form is ternary (ABA) which for an aria is da capo because performers, when reaching end of B, "take it from the head" and repeat A.
  58. PRELUDE
    short preparatory piece that sets a mood and serves as a technical warm up for the player before the fugue
  59. THE ART OF FUGUE ( 1742-1750)
    Bachs last project, an encylcopedic treatment of all known contrapuntal procedures set forth in 19 canons and fugues.
  60. DANCE SUITE
    genre that was a collection of dances, usually from 2-7 people, all in one key and for one group of instruments
  61. OPERA SERIA
    type of Italian opera created by Handel, literally "serious" instead of comic
  62. PASTORAL ARIA
    suggests the movement of simple shepherds attending the Christ Child
  63. ORATORIO
    literally "something sung in an oratory", an oratory being a hall or chapel used specifically for prayer

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