Unit 3

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Unit 3
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2012-09-25 22:35:22
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  1. Federalism
    A system of government in which sovereignty is constitutionally divided between a central governing authority and constituent political units. Democratic rules and institutions is shared between national and provincial/state governments.
  2. Concurrent Powers
    Powers in nations with a federalism/federal system of government that are shared by both the State and the federal government. They are contrasted with reserved powers.
  3. Elastic Clause
    A statement in the U.S. constitution (Article I, Section 8) grantingCongress the power to pass all laws necessary and proper forcarrying out the enumerated list of powers.
  4. Missouri Compromise 
    An agreement passed in 1820 between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States Congress, involving primarily the regulation of slavery in the western territories. It prohibited slavery in the former Louisiana Territory except within the boundaries of the proposed state of Missouri.
  5. Sherman Anti-Trust Act
     It prohibits certain business activities that reduce competition in the marketplace, and requires the United States federal government to investigate and pursue trusts, companies, and organizations suspected of being in violation.
  6. Medicaid
    Health program for certain people and families with low incomes and resources.
  7. Block Grants
    A large sum of money granted by the national government to a regional government with only general provisions as to the way it is to be spent. This can be contrasted with a categorical grant.
  8. Nullification
    A legal theory that a state has the right to nullify, or invalidate, any federal law which that state has deemed unconstitutional.
  9. Implied Powers
    Powers authorized by a legal document (from the Constitution) which, while not stated, seem to be implied by powers expressly stated.
  10. Dual Federalism
    Governmental power is divided into two separate spheres. One sphere of power belongs to thefederal government of the United States while the other severally belongs to each constituent state. Each sphere is mutually equal, exclusive, and limiting upon the other sphere, and each entity is supreme within its own sphere.
  11. Separate but Equal
    A legal doctrine in United States constitutional law that justified systems of segregation. Under this doctrine, services, facilities and public accommodations were allowed to be separated by race, on the condition that the quality of each group's public facilities was to remain equal. 
  12. FDIC
    A United States government corporation operating as an independent agency created by theGlass–Steagall Act of 1933. It provides deposit insurance, but does not provide deposit insurance for credit unions, which are insured by the National Credit Union Administration (NCUA).
  13. Grants-In-Aid
    Money coming from central government for a specific project.
  14. Devolution
    The passing down of authority from the national gov't to states and localities.
  15. Habeas Corpus
     "You must present the person in court." Requires a person under arrest to be brought before a judge or into court.
  16. Enumerated Powers
    Items found in Article I, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution that set forth the authoritative capacity of Congress. Congress may exercise the powers that the Constitution grants it, subject to explicit restrictions in the Bill of Rights and other protections in the Constitution.
  17. InterState Commerce
    A board, consisting of seven members, that supervises andregulates all carriers, except airplanes, engaged in interstatecommerce.
  18. Cooperative Federalism
    A concept of federalism in which national, state, and local governments interact cooperatively and collectively to solve common problems, rather than making policies separately but more or less equally or clashing over a policy in a system dominated by the national government.
  19. Fiscal Federalism
    A term referring to the expenditure funds on programs run in part through states and localities.
  20. TANF
    Provides temporary financial assistance while aiming to get people off of that assistance, primarily through employment.
  21. Ex Post Facto
    Also called a retroactive law, is a law that retroactively changes the legal consequences of actions that were committed, or relationships that existed, before the enactment of the law.
  22. Supremacy Clause
    Establishes the U.S. Constitution, U.S. Treaties, and laws made pursuant to the U.S. Constitution, shall be "the supreme law of the land." 
  23. IntraState Commerce
    The buying and selling of products and services within a single state.
  24. Commerce Clause
    An enumerated power listed in the United States Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3). The clause states that the United States Congress shall have power "To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes."
  25. Medicare
    National social insurance program, administered by the U.S. federal government that guarantees access to health insurance for Americans ages 65 and older and younger people with disabilities as well as people with end stage renal disease.
  26. Categorical Grant
    Main source of federal aid to state and local government, can only be used for specific purposes and for helping education, or categories of state and local spending.
  27. No Child Left Behind Act
    A United States Act of Congress that is a reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, which included Title I, the government's flagship aid program for disadvantaged students.

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