Survey of Asian Art Exam 1

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Survey of Asian Art Exam 1
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2012-09-25 23:22:57
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Survey of Asian Art Exam 1
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  1. Bust of a Man from Mohenjo-daro. Indus Civilization (c. 2500 - 1500 BCE)
  2. Square Stamp Seal with Shiva (?) from Mohenjo-daro. Indus Civilization (c. 2500 - 1500 BCE).
    • Bowl with Human Head and Fish Designs from Banpo. Neolithic China (c. 7000 - 1000 BCE)
    • Very simple motifs, related to ancestral worship.

  3. Cong from Fanshan. Neolithic China (c. 7000 - 1000 BCE)
  4. Yue. Shang China (c. 1766 - 1045 BCE).
  5. Fang Ding from Tomb 1004, Houjiazhuang. Shang China (c. 1766 - 1045 BCE).
  6. Four-ram fang zun from Yueshanpu. Shang China (c. 1766 - 1045 BCE).
    • You in the form of a bear (?) swallowing man. Shang China (c. 1766 - 1045 BCE).
    • "You" was a ritual vessel for holding wine.
  7. Hu from Tomb 1, Xiasi. Zhou Dynasty (1045 - 221 BCE).
  8. Guardian Animal with Antlers from Tomb 1, Tianzingguan. Zhou Dynasty (1045 - 221 BCE).
  9. Carillon of 64 zhong and bo from the Tomb of Zeng Hou Yi, Leigundun. Zhou Dynasty (1045 - 221 BCE).





  10. Man and a Dragon from Zitanku. Zhou Dynasty (1045 - 221 BCE).
  11. Burial Army of First Emperor Qin. Qin Dynasty (221 - 206 BCE)
  12. Indus Civilization
    • (c. 2500 - 1500 BCE)
    • Modern Pakistan, settled on Indus River.
    • Mysterious civilization due to un-translated language. Serious excavations did not start until the 1920’s. We do know that they that well-organized grid system for streets.

    • After Aryan invaders subdued them around 2000
    • BCE, the Indus disappeared. Despite this, the Aryans didn’t leave any physical
    • evidence in the form of art or culture.
  13. Bust of a Man from Mohenjo-daro. Indus Civilization (c. 2500 - 1500 BCE)
    • 7” tall. Shell in eye = more life-like eyes.
    • Hint of color in trefoil pattern.
    • Carved in limestone, which means that they had
    • some skill with carving.
    • Stylization of “The Bust” is similar to Sumerian:
    • stylized beard, unibrow, large eyes, and different ethnicity (Hypothesized to be a Dasas member).
  14. Square Stamp Seal with Shiva (?) from Mohenjo-daro. Indus Civilization (c. 2500 - 1500 BCE).
    • 1 ¼ “, shares Hindu characteristics. Shiva in Hinduism = a complex and important figure a lord of the beasts.
    • Shiva is seated in yogic style, extended arms, possibly multiple faces, elaborate horned headdress, elevated throne, has erection and surrounded by animals
  15. Stamps of Indus Civilization
    • Made with steatite, roated with slip and fire.
    • Mostly stylized representations of animals.
    • They were worn around the neck and pressed into clay. Mesopotamians used “cylinder seals” designed to be rolled and can display a narrative
  16. Trefoil
    decorative design with three loaves (garment)
  17. Stylization
    relates to something recognizable, but is adjusted to impose a characteristic style
  18. Naturalization
    closely approximates the human world.
  19. Dasas
    dark-skinned, thick-nosed worshippers of the phallus, term came to mean “slave” due to Aryan invaders.
  20. Intaglio
    cut-into surface, leaving a relief image.
  21. Neolithic China (c. 7000 - 1000 BCE)
    • The people of this civilization produced mainly
    • pottery, which grows to jade-working
    • Neolithic = New Stone Age
    • Jade carving emerged. Jade was found in Lanzhou
    • and was considered to be a precious material. It was used to make ritualistic objects. There is a hierarchical
    • view of jade and jade-works.
  22. Cong from Fanshan. Neolithic China (c. 7000 - 1000 BCE)
    • An example of early jade-working. 3 ½” tall, example of sophisticated carving that resembles “Bi” (found in tombs).
    • The words “Cong” and “Bi” would be later used to refer to the earth and the heavenly realm respectively.
  23. Shang China (c. 1766 - 1045 BCE)
    • Also known as “The Bronze-Age Culture, this civilization had many advances that showed sign of centralization and organization --> a system of advanced writing, metalworking, cities, an actual calendar.
    • Dynastic rule began with Shang.
    • Bronze work = ritualistic, bronze and jade replicas of weapons and tools. They were soon made into vessels.
    • Ancestor worship was common and established in China at this point. Artists of this period were interested in a proliferation of motifs on the surface with patterns, making them ritualistic and symmetrical.
  24. Vessel
    were used for food and wine sacrifices to ancestors.
  25. Ding
    a round, ritualistic vessel with 3 – 4 legs and handles used for cooking food. As the food cooks, ancestral spirits extract the “essence” of the food. The remainder of the food is consumed b participants.
  26. Fang
    an object that is square.
  27. Patina
    surface of bronze after it has oxidized
  28. Taotie
    mask-like surface, primary motifs of Shang Dynasty. Bronze works that resemble an unspecific fantastical animal.
  29. Yue, Shang China (c. 1766 - 1045 BCE).
    • A large axe was given to a lord and used to grant military authority, whilst serving as a symbol or used for decapitation. “Yue” has a characteristic feudal shape, 'subtle' grimacing face, which likely was a symbol of aggression. It has
    • C-shaped ears that are cut out and stylized and covered in patina.

     
  30. Fang ding from Tomb 1004, Houjiazhuang. Shang China (c. 1766 - 1045 BCE)
    • The body of the vessel has motifs as well as legs. It was made by piece-mold casting. The surface decoration is extremely elaborate. Similar to taotie.
    • Coil, or “thunder” pattern similar to greek meander patterns. Thunder patterns were used to fill space. The Shang Dynasty wanted to cover entire surface of objects with motifs to make the object more elaborate = ritualistic
  31. Zun
    a ritualistic vessel designed to hold wine, jar with large flaring lip. It is theorized that perhaps wood carvings may have preceded these zuns.
  32. Four-ram fang zun from Yueshanpu
    highly symmetrical, combined naturalism and stylization. Made by using piece-mold method.
  33. Zhou Dynasty (1045 – 221 BCE)
    • Shang was conquered by Zhou, to which heaven was an important idea.
    • Guardians are mythical creatures, carved from wood, concentrated in one region of China during the Zhou dynasty.
  34. Lacquer
    was applied to wooden objects as a water-proof varnish. Made from the sap of an Asian tree, it evolved to facilitate motifs and designs  on religious objects.
  35. Hu from Tomb 1, Xiasi. Zhou Dynasty (1045 - 221 BCE)
    Large-scale object, made for dead prince in his burial tomb. The artist created ridiculously elaborate motifs.
  36. Guardian Animal with Antlers from Tomb 1, Tianzingguan. Zhou Dynasty (1045 - 221 BCE)
    • 5 ½” high, represents early example of a funerary guardian. A two-headed creature with antlers, housed with bronze bells.
    • Coated in lacquer. Similar guardians were placed closest to occupant’s head, facing the buried person to serve as protectors.
  37. Zhong
    • bells, used ritualistically and for entertainment, ornamental and scriptural purposes.
    • In order to play them, one could strike the rim or body to achieve two different tones. The nubs on the surface effect the sounds and suggest that the Zhou achieved sophisticated craftsmanship .
  38. Bo
    different kind of bell without an arcing lip.
  39. Carillon of 64 zhong and bo from the Tomb of Zeng Hou Yi, Leigundun. Zhou Dynasty (1045 - 221 BCE).
    Important occupant with bodies of servants, the bells had a curling dragon on the surface. An inscription details that the set was a donation to the tomb as a testament to the prince’s life.
  40. Man and a Dragon from Zitanku. Zhou Dynasty (1045 - 221 BCE)
    Depicts deceased, representation of a man riding on dragon chariot. Strings on his garment suggest he is in motion, showing an increased sophistication with art works.
  41. Qin Dynasty (221 – 206 BCE)
    • The Qin forced out the Zhou and began Chinese legalism
    • Chinese legalism: rule of law is absolute, legalist system advocated severe penile laws in order to deter political opposition and maintain control through fear.
    • In 221, Qin conquered all of what is modern-day China.
    • Qin Shihuangdi: Enforced a on-feudal system that is all under the umbrella of Emperor. China becomes empiracle state that focused on securing land from the northern and southern invaders. He was greatly influenced by Li Si. He regularized weight and measurements and romoted writing and text composition.
    • The word China comes from the word “Qin”
  42. Burial Army of First Emperor Qin Qin Dynasty (221 - 206 BCE)
    • In the 1970’s, two men who were digging a well dug up some life-sized clay (earthenware) soldiers, horses and chariots thousands of them.
    • Pit 1: 6,000 soldiers
    • Pit 2: 1400 soliders
    • Pit 3: 68 soldiers
    • Pit 4: empty.
    • The soldiers were individualized.

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