Environmental Studies 260

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Environmental Studies 260
2012-09-25 23:13:01

first exam notes
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  1. Sustainability
    meet the needs of present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs
  2. 3 pillars of sustainability
    environmental, economics, society
  3. What did ancient greeks do to hurt environment?
    • Loss of Wildlife (hippo, antelope, shrew, hedgehog
    • Cultivate marginal alnds (hard on landscape)
    • Deforestation (less to plant)
    • Saltation and soil depletion(loss top soil, silt runs into water body fills with dirt, lose topsoil)
  4. Problems with Mayan Civilization
    Population density/growth(overuse of resources, use more land run inot problems with wildlife,environmental stress)
  5. Anasazi Indians
    population growth, land use, environmental stress, overuse of resources
  6. Most common issues with all civilizations
    • overpopulation (population growth interaction with consumption)
    • resource use
  7. Todays problem?
    rate and scale population growth interaction with consumption
  8. What is the noble savage idea
    take waht benefits you can
  9. What caused populations to grow way back then?
    • birth/death rates
    • fertility
    • culture/religion
    • economics
    • politics 
  10. ultimate cause
    bottom line why you do something (survival, pass on genes and survive)
  11. proximate cause
    immediate cues that you choose to do
  12. runaway selection 
    selective pressures to consume have created such a strong desire tod o so for reproductive measures
  13. ecological footprint
    a measure of how much biologically productive land and and water and individual/population requires to produce the resources necessary and abosrb its wastes given previaling technology
  14. biocapacity
    the capacity of a biologically productive area to generate renewable resources and abosrb its waste
  15. biological diversity
    the millions of plants, animals, and microorganisms, the genes they contain and teh intricate ecosystems they help build inot the living environment
  16. three levels of biological diversity 
    species, community, genetic 
  17. types of species diversity
    alpha, beta, gamma
  18. alpha diversity 
    how many different species are in that area/community
  19. species richness
    how many spcies are there, individual species
  20. species evenness
    how the species are distributed in environment
  21. beta diverstiy
    measures diversity across habitats look at change in species diversity across communites
  22. gamma diversity 
    diversity across really large landscapes
  23. biological community
    species that live in a particular locationa dn their interation 
  24. ecosystem
    biological community and/plus the physical and chemical environment, exsists within biological community
  25. Carrying capacity
    number of indivuals and/or species that an environment can hold
  26. primary producers
    take and harvest energy from sun
  27. primary consumer
    eat the primary producers (leaves, grass, etc)
  28. secondary consumers
    eat primary or secondary consumers (predators/carnivores)
  29. omnivores
    eat everything
  30. detritivores
    eat decaying organic materials
  31. pahtogens
    feed off everything/every level
  32. keystone species
    species that have an unusually larger effect on the ecosystem than we would predict based on biomass/abundance
  33. ecosystem health
    all processes are funtioning normally
  34. stable ecosystems
    ecosystem is able to remian in the same state, need to conserve species and processes of that community
  35. resistance
    the ability of ecosystem or community to maintain state on face of disturbance
  36. resilience
    the ability to bounce back after a disturbance
  37. where is diversity found
    rainforest, coral reefs, deep sea, large tropical lakes, other key habitats (mangroves, wetlands, grasslands)
  38. Causes of Extinction
    habitat loss/destruction, habitat change, overharvesting, pollution, climate change, habitat fragmentation
  39. bioaccumulation
    increase in concentration of a pollutant from the environment to teh first organism in food chain
  40. biomagnification
    increase in concentraion of a pollutant from one link in a food chian to another
  41. maximum sustainable yield
    greatest amount of resource that can be harvested each year and replaced through population growth 
  42. hotspots
    areas wth high biodiversity and endemism (species found nowhere else) that face exceptional threat of imminent habitat destruction