Nutrition Exam I.txt

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Nutrition Exam I.txt
2012-11-09 19:37:24
Nutrition Exam

Nutrition Exam I
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  1. Nutrition def.
    injest, digest, absorb, transport, utilize, disqueeze
  2. 6 nutrition conponents in food
    carbs, protein,fats, water,vitamins,minerals.
  3. only what nutrients provide kcal/ energy
    ony protein, fats, carbs.
  4. definition of Iatrogenic Malnutrition (医源性营养不良)
    a nutritional disease resulting from medical treament to patient with drugs surgery or dipudict diet.
  5. example of Iatrogenic malutrition(医源性营养不良)
    anticonvulsants 抗惊厥药(increase need for folic acid 叶酸)
  6. peristalsis (蠕动)
    churning action that propels food down the tract.(搅动行动,推动食品上下道。)
  7. Peristalsis begins in
  8. supplementations ≥ (大于等于)150% RDA 等于
    megadose. may be toxic
  9. Bile(胆管)
    produce in the liver(肝), store at gallbladder(胆囊).
  10. most Americans consume adequate(充足的)
  11. digestion def.
    changing food into the simplest form.
  12. all food turn to
    glucose   --    glycogen(糖原)   --  fat
  13. merabolism def.
    energy obtain from calories.      

    metabolizing fat, protein, carbs.

    energy intake( P. C. F)→  energy output (anabolism合成身体结构谢, catabolism分解消化代谢)
  14. metabolism of glucose
    from carbohydrate foods
  15. metabolism of fatty acids, glycerol, mono and diglycerol
    from fat/lipid food
  16. metabolism of amino acid
    from protein food
  17. steatorrhea ( fatty stools ) occurs when
    fatty acids are not absorbed
  18. major source of energy and fiber
  19. green bananas
    have ↑ starch, but convert to sugar as aged
  20. corn
    has ↑ sugar, but converts to starch as aged
  21. complex CHO ( polysaccharides )
    • primarily starch and cellulose (fiber)
    • found in breads, vegetables, and cereals(面包和蔬菜类)
  22. monosacchrides are goal of digesting carb
    because it is simplest form of CHO(carbohydrate).

    ***3 important monosaccharides : glucose, frutose果糖,galactose半乳糖
  23. honey
    • dextrose (blood sugar)
    • honey contributes simple sugar
  24. main source of energy for the CNS (central nervous system)
  25. Disaccharides(双糖)
    • Sucrose (蔗糖)= glucose + fructose(果糖) (table sugar)
    • Lactose (乳糖)= glucose + galactose(半乳糖)
    • Maltose(麦芽糖) = glucose + glucose
  26. Sucrotose 100% found in
    table sugar and granulated sugar(粒糖).
  27. table sugar and granulated sugar are examples of
    simple carbs
  28. Lactose是
    milk sugar
  29. lactose intolerance(乳糖消化不良) caused & symptoms症状
    • a) causes: lactase insufficiency(乳糖酶功能不全).
    • b) symptoms: blowing gasness and diarrhea, after eating dairy except cheese & yogurt
  30. polysaccharides (多糖)are considered
    starches and fiber
  31. other terms for fiber
    cellulose, gums, pectins (纤维素, 树胶, 果胶).
  32. glucose is stored as
  33. glycogen is stored in the
    liver and muscle
  34. human don't have the enzyme to break fiber/cellulose down
    so it is not absorbed
  35. ideal fiber per day
    20 - 35 g fiber/ day
  36. too much fiber resulting
    • decreased nutrient absorption.  (6个)
    • ex. ≥35g fiber/ day  
  37. food sources of fiber
    fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, wholegrains
  38. 2 types of fiber
    • insoluble fiber
    • soluble fiber
  39. insoluble fiber may lower the risk of
    calon cancer (结肠癌) and diverticulosis(憩室炎)
  40. soluble fiber may lower
    cholesterol level(胆固醇)
  41. goal fiber per day
    at least 3g/ 100 kcal from CHO food
  42. 1g Carbohydrate(CHO)→
    1g Fiber→
    1g Alcohol→
    1g Fat→
    1g Protein→
    • 1g Carbohydrate(CHO)→x4  =4kcal
    • 1g Fiber→ x0  = 0 kcal
    • 1g Alcohol→ x7  = 7 kcal
    • 1g Fat→ x9  = 9kcal
    • 1g Protein→x4  = 4kcal
  43. 5g Carbohydrate(CHO)→
    6g Fiber→
    8g Alcohol→
    2g Fat→
    12g Protein→
    • 5g Carbohydrate(CHO)→  20 kcal
    • 6g Fiber→  0 kcal
    • 8g Alcohol→  56 kcal
    • 2g Fat→ 18 kcal
    • 12g Protein→  48 kcal
  44. Consequences of Low CHO free diet
    lose sodium, potassium, and water which accounts for weight loss and weakness
  45.  fat must be used as primary source of energy, which is (abnormal 异常) and create a build up of _______

    • symptoms of ketosis
    • fatigue, dehydration, and loss of energy (疲劳,脱水,和的能量损失)
  46. sugar substitutes
    • aspartame  (阿斯巴甜artificial sweetener)(nutrasweet)
    • saccharide 糖类 (sweet -n- low)
    • splenda      (sucralose)
    • stevia甜叶菊(never consume > 2 tsp/day)
  47. side affects of aspartame
    • nausea
    • dizzyness
    • headaches
    • insomnia
    • mentural inregularities
    • CNS problems
  48. alcohol/ethanol
    • water soluble
    • Requires NO Digestion
  49. characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
    slow infant growth, small head/body, distorted facial features, mental retardation (low IQ)
  50. higher fat consumption increases the risk of Cancer by
    promoting cell division
  51. American Heart Association suggests we get ____%kcal from fat
    30% kcal from fat
  52. 2 major component of fats
    • 1) Glycerol:  common to all fats
    • 2) fatty acid: can be change
  53. fatty acids can divide to 3 catagories
    • saturated fats
    • monounsaturated fats
    • poly/unsaturated fats
  54. saturated fats
    have 2 hydrogen atoms attached to each carbon in the fatty acid chain
  55. saturated fat increases the risk of
    heart disease
  56. examples of saturated fats
    animal fats (meat, dairy), tropical oil(coconut, palm), hydrogenated veg. oil (trans fat)
  57. meat
    saturated fat
  58. dairy cheese butter yogurt milk
    saturated fat
  59. monounsaturated fats
    lacks 2 hydrogen atoms
  60. best fat
    monounsaturated fat
  61. examples of monounsaturated fats
    olive oil, canola oil, nuts/nut oil (peanut oil)
  62. olive oil
    monounsaturated oil
  63. canola oil
    monounsaturated oil
  64. nuts oil
    monounsaturated oil
  65. nuts
    monounsaturated oil
  66. poly/unsaturated fats
    lacks many hydrogen atoms
  67. poly/unsaturated fats
    increase the need of antioxidant
  68. examples of poly/unsaturated fats
    all other vegetable oil
  69. corn oil
    unsaturated oil
  70. cotton seed oil
    unsaturated oil
  71. food industry hydrogenates liquid fat to decrease spoilage which increase
    shelf life
  72. examples of hydrogenation
    margin, store bought cookies, shortening, commercially prepared peanut butter
  73. brownie
  74. skippy jiff
  75. essential(body doesn't make ) fatty acid (must be provided by the diet)
    • Linoleic acid (亚油酸)
    • Linolenic acid (亚麻酸)
  76. omega 3 fats
    lower risk of disease by decreasing inflammation
  77. examples of omega 3 fats
    salmon, flax, walnuts
  78. cholesterol only found in
    dietary animal fats
  79. Not all the saturated fats contains cholesterol(因为饱和脂肪还有包含蔬菜油和热带油)
  80. functions of cholesterol
    • precusor of Vitamin D
    • needed for the formation of hormones, bile salts, and body membranes in all cells
  81. Olestra(蔗糖聚酯)
    Food and Drug Administration(FDA) approved fat substitute(fake fat)
  82. physical properties of fat
    • insoluble in water
    • less dense than water
    • may burn in high temperatures
    • becomes rancid (spoiled馊掉或坏掉)
  83. Lipids are transported in the blood as
    lipoproteins(脂蛋白), HDL and LDL, chylomicrons(乳糜微粒合), and fat bound to protein(脂肪的蛋白质结)
  84. Absorption
    mono and diglycerides, fatty acids and glycerol cross the intestinal wall ( lipid 图2)
  85. HDL
    healthy choledterol
  86. LDL
    lousy cholesterol
  87. HDLs function
    are responsible for returning lipids from the body to the liver, thereby decreasing risk of atherosclerosis
  88. Lipids
    • are transported in the blood as lipoproteins
    • HDLs and LDLs
    • chylomicrons
    • fat bound to protein
  89. fat kcal
    1 g fat = 9 kcal
  90. atherosclerosis(动脉粥样硬化)
    lipids(血脂肪) and other materials that form plaque(斑块) and narrows (缩小) / clogs the arteries(堵塞动脉)
  91. to increase HDLs
    • ↑exercise
    • ↑fiber
    • ↑monounsaturated fat
    • ↓ smoking
    • ↓trans fat (from saturated fat)
    • ↓overall fat = ↓ risk of heart attack and stroke
  92. functions of lipids (8个)
    • 1)source of energy
    • 2)high satiety value (make us feel full)
    • 3)carrier of fat soluble vitamins (A D E K)
    • 4)palatability (good taste)
    • 5)energy reserve
    • 6)precursor of prostaglandins前列腺素 (hormone-like substances)
    • 7)insulation (keep us warm)
    • 8)protection of vital body organs
  93. kcal?
    10 g CHO
    1 g fiber
    3 g alcohol
    8 g fat
    totoal =133 kcal
  94. most common monosacchride?
  95. only way to eat cholesterol
    animal fats
  96. carbohydrate
    • high fiber
    • low sugar
  97. the remaining mass in the large intestine
    fiber and water
  98. anabolism(合成代谢)
    • for energy
    • build body compounds and storing material
  99. catabolism(分解代谢)
    • for movement
    • products of digestion are broken down further for energy
  100. Food Label  (见Lipid package 第3页)
  101. protein in where of the body ?  (6个地方)
    muscle, skin, bone, hormone (激素), hemoglobin(血红蛋白), antibodies(抗体)
  102. Def. of essential nutrient (不能制造)
    Must be consumed in the diet because it cannot be synthesized by the body
  103. Essential nutrient's job
    • Provide energy
    • Promotes growth
    • Regulates body process
  104. Protein kcal
    1 g protein = 4 kcal
  105. Protein is synthesized by units called
    Amino acid (CHON) N= Nitrogen is unique to protein only
  106. Essential amino acid(不能制造)
    Body can not synthesized the protein at a rate sufficient to meet the needs of growth (must get through diet)
  107. non-essential amino acid (可制造)
    can be synthrsized by the body
  108. complete protein
    animal protein from the milk and meat group
  109. incomplete protein
    plant protein from vegetable and grain (starchy) group
  110. complete protein contains
    all essential amino acid
  111. incomplete ptotein
    lackd or has limited amounts of one or more essential amino acid
  112. complementary proteins
    • peanut butter and bread
    • rice and beans
    • rice and vegetables, sprouts, salads
  113. types of vegetarianism
    • vegan - consume only plants
    • (egg)     ovovegetarian - plants and eggs
    • (dairy)     lactovegetarian - plant and dairy
    • (egg&dairy)   ovolactovegetarian - plant, egg, and dairy
  114. vegan
    only plant
  115. ovovegetarian
    plant and egg
  116. lactovegetarian
    plant and dairy
  117. ovolactovegetarian
    plant, egg, dairy
  118. functions of protein (5个)
    • 1) formation of essential body compounds (hormones, enzymes)
    • 2) regulation of water balance
    • 3) maintenance of body neutrality (pH)
    • 4) antibody formation
    • 5) transport nutrients
  119. protein for infants
    2 - 2.5 g protein / kg
  120. ptotein for teens/body builders
    1 - 1.5 g protein / kg
  121. protein for adults
    0.75 - 0.80 g protein / kg
  122. Protein Calorie Malnutrition PCM
    • Kwashiorkor(恶性营养不良)
    • Marasmus(消瘦)
  123. Kwashiorkor
    Protein defficiency only (蛋白缺失)
  124. Marasmus
    protein and calorie defficiency(白质和热量的缺失)
  125. Positive nitrogen balance occurs during  (6个阶段)
    infancy, childhood, adolescence, pregnancy, in individuals increasing muscle mass, and in people recovering from illness
  126. what determines protein needs
    nitrogen balance studies
  127. in starvation, if kcal intake is too low
    protein from muscle may be used as energy
  128. the non-nitrogenous portion is converted to glucose and provides energy, excess is stored as
    glycogen or fat
  129. amino acid can be used as energy only when
    when nitrogen is removed(deamination脱氨).  --occurs during starvation.
  130. enzymes, known as Protease , break down protein into simple units of Amino Acid ; otherwise, they are too large to be absorbed.
  131. at least 300 kcals fuels the brain for
    4 - 5 hrs
  132. why vitamin, minerals, water don't provide energy
    they don't have kcal
  133. hyperglycemia
    lower insulin produce, the hyperglycemia remains
  134. symptoms of lactose intolerance
    • bloating
    • gaseousness
    • diahhrea
    • nausea
    • abdominal pain
    • after eating dairy EXCEPT cheese and yorgurt
  135. tropical oil
    saturated fat
  136. palm oil
    saturated fat
  137. coconut oil
    saturated fat
  138. bile is stored in
  139. Cholesterol is the precursor of vitamin
  140. how lipid is absorbed
    • mono and diglycerides, fatty acids, glycerol cross the intestinal wall
    • recombine in the lymphatic system
    • tranported to the liver
  141. cholesterol free
    < 2 mg cholesterol per serving
  142. NLEA
    • Nutrition Labeling Education Act
    • federal law allowing health claims on food labels
  143. all information on the food label based on
    1 serving
  144. daily value
    percentage out of 100% RDI of a 2000 kcal diet
  145. advantages of being vegetarians
    • proper kcals
    • lower fat
    • lower saturated fat
    • higher monounsaturated fat
    • higher fiber
    • lower dietary cholesterol ( animal fat )
  146. proteins serve as buffers to neutralize acid or base
    • Gastrin (胃泌素) secreted in stomach to increase acidity
    • Secretin (泌) secreted in small intestine to decrease acidity
  147. Gastrin (胃泌素)secreted in
    secreted in stomach to increase acidity
  148. secretin (泌)secreted in
    secreted in small intestine to decrease acidity
  149. deamination(脱氨)
    deamination - N is temoved