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theory depicts children constructing knowledge for themselves
the tendency to respond to the demands of the
environment to meet one’s goals
The tendency to integrate particular observations into coherent knowledge
process by which people translate incoming information into form they can understand; make info part of scheme
process by which people adapt current schemes
and create new schemes in response to new experiences
process by which people balance assimilation and
accommodation to restructure schemes to create stable understanding of world
the use of one object to stand for another.
the tendency to perceive the world solely from one’s own point of view.
In the ___ stage over the course of the first two years, infants’ sensorimotor intelligence develops tremendously.
The tendency to focus on a single, perceptually triking feature of an object or event
infants become able to form enduring mental representations. The first sign of this capacity is deferred imitation
Sub 6: 18-24 months
the repetition of other people’s bx asubstantial time after it occurred.
toddlers begin to actively and avidly explore the potential uses to which objects can be put.
Sub 5: 12-18 months
children make A-Not-B error, the tendency to reach to where objects have been found before, rather than to where they were last hidden
Sub 4: 8-12 months
Object permanence, the knowledge of objects continue to exist even when they are out of view, typically emerges.
Sub 3: 4-8months
infants begin to organize separate reflexes into larger bx, most of which are centered on their own bodies.
Sub 2: 1-4months
infants begin to modify the reflexes w/ which they are born to make them more adaptive.
Sub 1: birth-1 months
Piaget’s description of preoperational stage mainly focused on the ____ of children’s abilities.
Reasoning from the particular to the general; from experience to
understanding that actions and mental operations can be reversed.
The concept of reversibility
reasoning from the general to the particular; reasoning from a theory to a hypothesis.
Cognitive development culminates in ability to think abstractly and to reason about hypothetical situations.
Formal operations stage
In the concrete operational stage, children begin to reason logically (inductive logic) but thinking systematically remains difficult (unable to use deductive logic)
Examine how nature and nurture work together to produce development.
Emphasis on precise descriptions of how change occurs.
(Children undergo continuous cognitive change)
Are concerned with the development of learning, memory, and
Information processing theory
Emphasize the sophistication of infants’ and young children’s
Like, Piagetian Theory and Information-Processing Theories, children are viewed as active learners.
view children as entering the world with specialized learning mechanisms.
Core knowledge theory
limited to a particular area, such as living things or inanimate
Young children actively organize their understanding of the most important domains into _____
Focus on the contribution of other people and the surrounding culture to children’s development.
Emphasize guided participation.
Originator of sociocultural approach
Infants are endowed with capacities that develop continuously via direct contact with the environment.
Continuous, quantitative change
children develop their self-regulation and problem-solving abilities by telling themselves what to do.
Children are seen as:
Learning many important lessons on their own
Intrinsically motivated to learn
Piagetian Theory (Cognitive development)
Are psychological structures
Organized ways of making sense of experience
Change with age
Action-based (motor patterns) at first
Later move to a mental (thinking) level
determine the influence of several variables on the speed with which a pendulum would swing.
the Pendulum problem
Children’s cognition is less stage-like than Piaget believed.
Piaget was vague on the mechanisms that produce development.
Infants and young children appear to be more competent than Piaget originally thought.
Theory doesn’t adequately deal with role of social world.
Weakness to Piaget's theory
How has Piaget's theory been applied to education?
(1) Discovery learnining
(2) Sensitivity to children’s readiness to learn
(3) Acceptance of individual differences
(4) All of the above
______ & ______ also play prominent roles in the sociocultural analyses of change.
Intersubjectivivty & social scaffolding