DEP- Chapter 4

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DEP- Chapter 4
2012-10-09 13:57:09

Chapter 4- Piaget
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  1. theory depicts children constructing knowledge for themselves
  2. the tendency to respond to the demands of the
    environment to meet one’s goals
  3. The tendency to integrate particular observations into coherent knowledge
  4. process by which people translate incoming information into form they can understand; make info part of scheme
  5. process by which people adapt current schemes
    and create new schemes in response to new experiences
  6. process by which people balance assimilation and
    accommodation to restructure schemes to create stable understanding of world
  7. the use of one object to stand for another.
    Symbolic representation
  8. the tendency to perceive the world solely from one’s own point of view.
  9. In the ___ stage over the course of the first two years, infants’ sensorimotor intelligence develops tremendously.
    Sensorimotor stage
  10. The tendency to focus on a single, perceptually triking feature of an object or event
  11. infants become able to form enduring mental representations. The first sign of this capacity is deferred imitation
    Sub 6: 18-24 months
  12. the repetition of other people’s bx asubstantial time after it occurred.
    Deferred imitation
  13. toddlers begin to actively and avidly explore the potential uses to which objects can be put.
    Sub 5: 12-18 months
  14. children make A-Not-B error, the tendency to reach to where objects have been found before, rather than to where they were last hidden
    Sub 4: 8-12 months
  15. Object permanence, the knowledge of objects continue to exist even when they are out of view, typically emerges.
    Sub 3: 4-8months
  16. infants begin to organize separate reflexes into larger bx, most of which are centered on their own bodies.
    Sub 2: 1-4months
  17. infants begin to modify the reflexes w/ which they are born to make them more adaptive.
    Sub 1: birth-1 months
  18. Piaget’s description of preoperational stage mainly focused on the ____ of children’s abilities.
  19. Reasoning from the particular to the general; from experience to
    broad rules.
    Inductive logic
  20. understanding that actions and mental operations can be reversed.
    The concept of reversibility
  21. reasoning from the general to the particular; reasoning from a theory to a hypothesis.
    Deductive logic
  22. Cognitive development culminates in ability to think abstractly and to reason about hypothetical situations.
    Formal operations stage
  23. T/F
    In the concrete operational stage, children begin to reason logically (inductive logic) but thinking systematically remains difficult (unable to use deductive logic)
  24. Examine how nature and nurture work together to produce development.

    Emphasis on precise descriptions of how change occurs.
    (Children undergo continuous cognitive change)

    Are concerned with the development of learning, memory, and
    problem-solving skills.
    Information processing theory
  25. Emphasize the sophistication of infants’ and young children’s

    Like, Piagetian Theory and Information-Processing Theories, children are viewed as active learners.

     view children as entering the world with specialized learning mechanisms.
    Core knowledge theory
  26. limited to a particular area, such as living things or inanimate
    Domain specific
  27. Young children actively organize their understanding of the most important domains into _____
    naïve theories.
  28. Focus on the contribution of other people and the surrounding culture to children’s development.

    Emphasize guided participation.
    Sociocultural approach
  29. Originator of sociocultural approach
    Lev Vygotsky
  30. Infants are endowed with capacities that develop continuously via direct contact with the environment.
    Continuous, quantitative change
  31. internalized speech
  32. children develop their self-regulation and problem-solving abilities by telling themselves what to do.
    Private speech
  33. Children are seen as:
    Learning many important lessons on their own
    Intrinsically motivated to learn
    Piagetian Theory (Cognitive development)
  34. Are psychological structures
    Organized ways of making sense of experience
    Change with age
    Action-based (motor patterns) at first
    Later move to a mental (thinking) level
  35. determine the influence of several variables on the speed with which a pendulum would swing.
    the Pendulum problem
  36. Children’s cognition is less stage-like than Piaget believed.

    Piaget was vague on the mechanisms that produce development.

    Infants and young children appear to be more competent than Piaget originally thought.

    Theory doesn’t adequately deal with role of social world.
    Weakness to Piaget's theory
  37. How has Piaget's theory been applied to education?

    (1) Discovery learnining
    (2) Sensitivity to children’s readiness to learn
    (3) Acceptance of individual differences
    (4) All of the above
  38. ______ & ______ also play prominent roles in the sociocultural analyses of change.
    Intersubjectivivty & social scaffolding