Psych 1-3

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Psych 1-3
2012-09-26 15:33:37

Psych 1-3
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  1. Psychology
    The scientific study of behavior and mental processes , a study and a profession
  2. Independent varaible
    What is being varied
  3. Dependent variable
    what is changed b/c of the independent variable
  4. Single Blind Study v. Double blind study
    In a single blind study, only the participants do not know if they did or did not receive the IV; in a double blind study, both the researchers and the participants do not know.  This is meant to prevent biases
  5. Goals of psychology
    • Describe
    • understand
    • Predict 
    • Control

    Ultimate goal: Benefit humnaity
  6. Behaviorism
    • Study of behavior, began 1930s and 40s= only thing that ca be observed
    • John B Watson, BF Skinner
    • Stimulus-Response
    • Tried to make psychology a natural science
  7. Psychoanalysis
    • Sigmuend Frued, first "talking therapy"
    • Explores unconscoiusness
    • Repression- held out of awareness
  8. Cognitive Psychology
    • The study of the mind
    • Focuses on a wide variety of areas, like learning, memory, attention, and language
  9. Naturalistic Observation
    • Observe behavior in natural settings
    • Provides the only descriptions of behavior that have not been tampered w/ by the outside
    • Minimize bias by keeping a formal log of data and observations; videotaping often a good solution
  10. Observer Effect v. Observer bias
    • Obsever Effect: Changes in subject's behavior caused by awareness of being observed
    • Observer bias: observers see what they expect to see, only record selected details
  11. Case Study
    • In depth focus on a single subject
    • Use to study rare/unusual problems
    • Lacks formal control groups, which limits conclusions that can be drawn
    • Provide special oppurtunities to answer interesting questions
    • Can't make conclusions for general pop
  12. Surveys
    • Use questionnaries to poll large groups of people
    • Want to have a representative sample
    • Low cost, reach a lot of people, provides interesting info about various topics
    • But: social desirability bias, wording of the questions may be confusing
  13. Sample
    A portion of the population that represents as accurately as possible the population being studied, in terms of things like gender, religion, age, etc.
  14. Humanistic Psychology
    • View that focuses on subjective human experience
    • Human problems, potentials, ideals, self esteem, self expression, belonging, self controol
  15. Scientific Method
    • Observation
    • Define problem
    • Propose hypothesis
    • Gather evidence/test hypothesis
    • Reject/retain hypothesis
    • Theory building
    • Publish 
  16. Neuron
    • Individual nerve cell; brain has 100 million of them
    • Carry and process info, activate muscles and glands
  17. Axons
    Extends from neurons, transmits electrical impluses to dendrites
  18. Dendrites
    nerve fiber that extends from nueron and receives messages
  19. Synapse
    space between axon and dendrite
  20. Nuerotransmitters
    • Carry info from nueron to neuron
    • Chemicals that alter activity in nuerons
    • Many drugs imitate, block, or duplicate
  21. Nerves
    Large bundles of axons
  22. Myelin
    "good fat" that surrounds the nerve and helps in saltatory conduction, helping a nerve impulse move faster
  23. Central v. peripheral nervous system
    • Central: Spinal cord & Brain
    • Peripheral: Intricate network of nerves carries info to and from the CNS
  24. Somatic System v. Autonomic system
    • Somatic: Carries messages to and from the sense organs and skeletal muscles, controls voluntary behavior
    • Autonomic: Serves the internal organs and glands, self-governing, automatic (heartbeat, breathing, digestion)
  25. Parasympathetic v. Sympathetic
    • Para: quiets the body and returns it to a lower level of arousal, most active soon after emotional events, helps vital functions move at normal levels
    • Symp: Emergency system, prepares body for fight or flight during times of high emotion
  26. Right v. Left hemispheres
    • Right: uses feeling, big picture, emotion
    • left: Language, detail, safe, logic
    • Right controls left side and vice versa
  27. Split Brain Operation
    • Sometimes, if epilepsy is severe enough, the corpus collusum between hempispheres is cut
    • Each part will have its own impulses to act, perceptions, concepts
    • Both 1/2 brain have same experience at same time
    • Usually one side overrides the other
  28. Spatial neglect
    • Occurs when right hem is damaged
    • Completely do no acknowledge left visual space
  29. Frontal lobe
    • Assoc w/ higher mental abilities
    • Responsibly for control of movement
    • Moter cortex- directs body's muslces, corresponds to importance of bodily areas
    • Related to complex behaviors
    • Damage may cuase change in personality
    • More activity usually indicates higher intelligence
  30. Occipital Lobe
    Primary visual area
  31. Pareital Lobe
    • Just above occiptal lobe
    • Registers bodily sensations like touch, temp, pressure
  32. Temporal Lobe
    • Locatted on each side
    • Auditory info
    • Left contains language center
    • Damage can severely limit use of language
  33. Aphasia
    impaired ability to use language
  34. CT scan
    • Specialized type of xray that makes seeing the brain much easier
    • way to view tumors, damage, etc.
    • Info is collected by a computer and formed into an image
  35. MRI scan
    • Magnetic resonance imaging
    • Use strong magnetic field to produce images of the interior
    • Creates 3D model
  36. Deep lesioning
    • Thin wire electrode, insulated except at tip, is lowered into target area of the brain; changes in behavior gives clues to purpose of affected area
    • Researchers have created a 3D brain atlas
  37. EEG
    • measures waves of electrical activity in brian via small disk-shaped metal plates put on head
    • Can record activity w/o invading skull
  38. PET scan
    • Detects positrons emitted by weakly radioactive glucose as it is consumed by the brain
    • Higher energy use= higher activity
    • Reveal what specific brain areas are active when you say a word, think of  a word, etc.
  39. Developmental psychology
    Studies the psychology of people as they grow and change
  40. Temperment
    • Physical core of personality
    • Sensitivity, irritability, distractability, etc.
    • Difficult children- 10%, moody, intense, easily angered
    • Slow to warm up children- 15%, restrained, shy, unexpressive
    • Easy Children- 40%, relaxed, easygoing
    • Rest are a mix
  41. Nature v. Nurture
    • Hereditary and environment are both important
    • Nature gives potentials, which are affected by envt
    • person you are today reflects constant flux between the two
  42. Maturation
    • Physical growth and development of body and nervous system
    • Order almost universal, but everyone moves at their own pace
    • Motor skills don't just happen- need practice
    • Can't just toilet train a newborn
  43. Grasping relflex
    • press object into neonate's hand and it will grasp it
    • Keeps baby from falling
  44. Rooting reflex
    • Reflexive head turning and searching to nurse
    • Helps baby find bottle/breast
  45. Sucking reflex
    Baby will try to nurse anything hear it- survival
  46. Moro relflex
    When startled by a loud noise, baby will make a hugging motion
  47. Chromosomes
    • made of DNA
    • Get 23 from mom, 23 from dad
    • Contain genes, which hold all the info for making a person; most genes are polygenic and can be dominant or recessive
  48. Social Smile
    • Baby's smiling is haphazard
    • By 2-3 months, when a person is nearby infant smile more frequently
    • apidly know what they like/dislike
  49. Sensitive period
    • Times most suspceptible to envt'l influences
    • Certain events must occur during this time or it could permenantly change the course of development
    • Example-forming bond with caregiver
  50. Harlow's monkey studies
    • Two surrogate mothers- one cold, unyielding wire, the other soft terrycloth
    • Monkeys spent most time w/ soft mothers, even when hard one had food- look to moms for comfort!
  51. Secure Attachment (Type B)
    • 2/3
    • Relationship of trust and confidence
    • during infancy, allows child to play indptly and happily, reassured by the caregiver's prescence
    • Caregivers are secure base
  52. Insecure-avoidant attachment
    Pattern of attachment in which 1 person avoids connection with another, as when an infant seems not to care about caregiver’s presence, departure, or return
  53. Insecure resistant attachment
    • Pattern in which anxiety &
    • uncertainty are evident, as when infant is very upset at separation & both resists & seeks contact on reunion 
  54. Disorganized attachment
    Category that is marked by inconsistent behavior of infant in reaction to caregiver’s departure/return
  55. Language Acquisition
    • Newborns prefer:
    • Speech over other sounds
    • \High-pitched
    • Simplified & repetitive speech
    • Motherese/parentese/baby talk
    • Use exaggerated pattern of speaking
    • Raise tone of voice, use short simple sentences, repeat themselves more
    • 4 months actually prefer parentese
    • Continued use of baby talk may slow language learning

    • 4 months:
    • Crying
    • Cooing
    • More verbal

    • 6-9 months:
    • Babbling:
    • Repeat certain syllables Mamama, papapa, dadada
  56. Assimilation
    using existing mental pattersn in new situations
  57. Accomadation
    Existing ideas are modified to meet new requirements
  58. Parts of brain