Physio Chapter One

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Physio Chapter One
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2012-09-26 13:28:58
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Chapter One
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  1. The study of all behavioral phenomena in all nonhuman and human animals in an attempt to understand the physiology of behavior.
    Physiological psychology
  2. The primary goal of research is...
    To explain the phenomenon of the study
  3. Form of scientific explanation that is based on observations of the phenomenon
    Generalization
  4. Type of scientific explanation that is based on describing phenomenon by understanding its underlying processes
    Reduction
  5. What time of scientific explanation is used by physiologists?
    Reduction
  6. What type of explanation is used by psychologists?
    Generalization
  7. What type of explanation is used by physiological psychologists?
    A mixture of generalization and reduction
  8. Believed that animals and humans were merely machines that responded to the environment automatically and involuntarily. Referred to these automatic responses as "reflexes."
    Rene Descartes
  9. This man's mathematical and physical analogy for physiological process was based upon hydraulic statues in the Royal Gardens of Paris. Pressurized water of the statues was replaced by pressurized fluid in the ventricles, pipes were replaced by nerves, the cylinders by muscles, and the hidden valves by the pineal body.
    Descartes
  10. Believed that muscles are controlled by the soul (mind) which resides in the pineal body of the brain.
    Descartes
  11. Discovered that electrical stimulation of the nerves within a frog's legs caused leg contractions, even without the central nervous system intact.
    Luige Galvani
  12. Formulated the "Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies" which states that all nerves carry basic messages or electrical impuses. 
    Johannes Müller
  13. Came up with the idea of "sensory detectors"
    Müller
  14. Used experimental ablation to identify the function of specific coritcal regions of the brain
    Pierre Flourens
  15. Identified somatisensory cortex, which picks up on our touch, affect the skin.
    Flourens
  16. Identified the motor cortex, which is the motor control for the body.
    Flourens
  17. Identified the very specific cortical center of speech by studying the brains of aphasic patients, most notably a patient nicknamed "Tan."
    Paul Broca
  18. Where is Broca's Area and what does it do?
    In the left hemisphere of the brain, it is a center for speech.
  19. His theories of natural selection and evolution gave rise to functionalism.
    Darwin
  20. The belief that characteristics of living organiss perform useful functions that promote survival.
    Functionalism
  21. In natural selection, mutations occur which are advantageous to the organism, giving it...
    selective advantage

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