Physio Chapter Two

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Physio Chapter Two
2012-09-26 13:59:49

Structure and function of cells in the nervous system
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  1. All movement and behavior is a function of what?
    The nervous system
  2. What is the most common neuron in the nervous system?
    Multipolar neuron
  3. Receives information from external or internal environment and sends info to the brain. 
    Sensory (or afferent) neurons
  4. Controls contraction of the muscles
    Motor (or efferent) neurons
  5. Connect sensory neurons and motor neurons and give us reflexes.
  6. These neurons are prominent in the spinal cord.
  7. Branches attached to soma, receives info from other neurons
  8. The cell body, contains the nucleus and other structures.
  9. Long tube-like appendage, propagates electrical impulses from soma to terminal button.
  10. What are electrical impulses that are propagated by the axon?
    Action potentials
  11. Some axons have this as insulation.
    Mylein sheath
  12. Mylinated axons contain this, the only place where ion exchange takes place.
    Nodes of Ranvier
  13. The end of the axon, releases neurotransmitters
    Terminal buttons
  14. Chemical that either excited or inhibits other neurons
  15. Membrane that releases neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft.
    Pre-synaptic membrane
  16. The receiver of neurotransmitters
    Post-synaptic membrane
  17. The junction between terminal buttons of one neuron and dendrite, soma, or axon.
  18. One axon and many dendrites attached to the soma. Some of the longest axons in the human body. They are mylinated.
    Multipolar neuron
  19. An axon and one dendirte attached to soma, usually conducting sensory info from environment to CNS. They are unmyelinated and examples are the eye, inner ear, etc.
    Bipolar neuron
  20. The axon and dendrite branches form one long appendage with a short stock attaching it to the soma, transmits sensory info from outside the peripheral nervous system.
    Unipolar neuron
  21. Layer of lipis aroud the cell.
  22. Jelly-like substance in the cell, holds other structures in place.
  23. Breaks down nutrients for energy for cell by producing ATP. The Power House.
  24. Contains chromosomes, which contain DNA, that make proteins, also contain genes.
  25. Strands of protein, give shape to the cell.
  26. Combines or breaks apart substances in cells. Also used for transport.
  27. Protein strands in axon used to transport substances along the axon; bidirectional.
  28. These cells support and hold neurons in place.
    Glia Cells
  29. These CNS glia cells provide physical support, clean up debris and dead cells, get nutrients from blood and give to neurons, control speed of neurotransmitters, perform as a kind of immune system for neurons, can travel around CNS --> its appendages can extend to new neurons.
  30. A CNS glia cell that supports axons, produces myelin sheath. Nodes of Ranvier are gaps between myelin sheath.
  31. A peripheral NS glia cell that supports axons and produces myelin in PNS. Helps regenerate axons.
    Schwann Cells
  32. This puts scar tissue down in the CNS, inhibiting the growth of chutes that a nucleus is trying to grow back that have been damage. This eventually kills the nucleus.
  33. In PNS, if part of the axon is destroyed, the axon will start sending out sprouts and attach to what?
    Schwann Cells
  34. Capillaries in the brain and spinal cord and do not allow substances to flow in and out of it, prevets chemicals from entering the brain, used to regulate composition of extracellular fluid to regulate message transmission in the brain. 
    Blood-brain barrier
  35. Safety system - gag reflex makes us throw up.
    Area Postrema
  36. Are pores for the blood-brain barrier the same size?
  37. This is sent from the dendrites, soma, or axon down the axon to the terminal buttons which releases various neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft.
    Action potential
  38. The electrical charge across a cell membrane. It is the difference in electrical potential inside the cell in comparison to the fluid bathing the outside of the cell.
    Membrane potential
  39. Sodium and potassium channels all over neurons and in cerebral spinal fluid are important to...
    Membrane potential
  40. Membrane potential at rest (-70 mV)
    Resting potential
  41. If we have a sub-threshold stimulus, will it fire and give off an action potential? 
    No. But if we keep stimulating it, it can get to threshold of excitation and eventually give off action potentials.
  42. Membrane potential that must be reached for action potential to occur (-60 mV)
    Threshold of excitation
  43. Rapid recution of membrane potential (+30 mV)
  44. Rapid increase in membrane potential
  45. Membrane potential becomes greater than its resting potential (overshoots)
  46. When threshold of excitation is reached, what is achieved when sodium channels open and sodium floods across the cell membrane into the cell?
    Depolarization of membrane
  47. At the peak of action potential, this occurs are sodium channels begin clsoing and potassium channels fully open, and potassium starts rushing out of the cell.
  48. When membrane potential returns to -70mV, what begins closing?
    Potassium channels
  49. When hyperpolarization occurs, sodium and potassium transporters pump in to what ions, and pump out three what ions until the membrane returns to the original resting potential.
    Potassium; sodium
  50. Action potential is either generated or not and does not decrease in size as it travels down the axon.
    All or nothing principle
  51. More neurons that fire = 
    More movement of info
  52. Action potentials propagate faster through myelinated axons in comparison to non-myelinated axons via:
    Saltatory conduction
  53. An elextrical charge in the membrane of the postsynaptic neuron caused by the binding of an exctatory neurotransmitter from a presynaptic cell to a postsynaptic receptor; making it more likely for a postsynaptic neuron to generate an action potential.
    Excitatory postsynaptic potential
  54. An electrical charge in the membrane of a postsynaptic neuron caused by the binding of inhibitory neurotransmitter from a presynaptic cell to a postsynaptic receptor; makes it more difficult for a postsynaptic neuron  to generate an action potential.
    Inhibitory postsynaptic potential
  55. Removal of neurotransmitter from synaptic cleft by the terminal button
  56. Enzyme destroys the neurotransmitter
    Enzymatic deactivation
  57. These are neurotranmitters that contracts the muslces
    Acetylcholine (ACH)
  58. Destroys Acetylcholine
    Acetylcholinesterase (AchE)