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(A.K.A. social or sociocultural anthropology)
- study of customary patterns in human behavior, thought, and feeling
- Culture: a societies shared and socially transmitted ideas, values, and perceptions, which are used to make sense of experience and generate behavior and are reflected in that behavior
- a study and analysis of different cultures from a comparative or historical point of view
- help explain similarities and differences using theories
a detailed description of a particular culture primarily based on field work
- focusing on the interaction of biology and culture
- humans are tied biologically to culture
- the study of human languages
- looking at their structure, history, and relation to social and cultural contexts
- slang, dialects, accent
- the study of humans as biological organisms; biological anthropology
- medical anthro: study of genes and genetic relations; study of human health and disease
- the study of living and fossil primates
- their culture
- evolutionary history
- study of human evolutions
- study fossils of remains
- the scientific study of bones
- the branch of anatomy that deals with the structure and function of bones
- study of human cultures through the recovery and analysis of material remains and environmental data
- bioarchaeology: the archaeological study of human remains, emphasizing the preservation of cultural and social processes in the skeleton
- cultural resource management: protection of cultural resources and historical remains threatened by construction or development; save historic history
- various parts of human culture and biology must be viewed in the broadest possible context in order to understand their interconnections and interdependence
- incorporates all disciplines
belief that one's own culture is the only proper one
looking at something without bias; through a cultures POV
the use of anthropological knowledge and methods to solve practical problems, often for a specific client
is the interdisciplinary study of the evolution of human physiology and human behaviour and the relation between hominids and non-hominid primates.
- specialization in the identification of human skeletal remains for legal purposes
- mass disasters
- assist law enforcement
the evolutionary process through which factors in the environment exert pressure, favoring some individuals over others to produce the next generation
- changes in ellele frequencies in populations
- also known as microevolution
- change over time in a population; in all animals
- changed by environment
- form a hypothesis
- collect data and make observations
- see if it fits hypothesis
- start over if need be
a tentative explanation of the relation between certain phenomena
an explanation of natural phenomena, supported by a reliable body of data
worldwide interconnections, evidenced in global movements of natural resources, trade goods, human labor, finance capital, information, and infectious diseases
- how a population changes
- Genus and Species
a group of species closely related
- can mate and have fertile offspring
- recognition of a mate
- look the same
- ex) pectoral fins on whales, sharks, and penguins
- they have different purposes but they adapted to the same environment
- ex) similar bone in human, cat, whale, and bat
- similar ancestor
a catastophic event caused the extinction of a species
- The processes of the Earth are the same throughout time
- therefore, the Earth is a lot older than it's believed to be
- rapid diversification of an evolving population as it adapts to a variety of available niches
- ex) Darwin's finches on the galapagos islands
- a primatologists who became involved in chimps life and studied them at a personal level
- lived with the chimps for many years
- father of anthropology
- a German who came to the United States
- In Europe, everything is divided and in the U.S. everything is combined and use the holistic approach
- 1st to live among another culture; Indians
- 1st to use the scientific method
- fought against racism and derogeratory terms
- wanted to do away with ethnocentric ideas
- He came up with the idea of catastrophism
- a catastrophy caused the extinction
- came up with uniformitarianism
- the process of the earth is constant therefore the earth has to be a lot older than 6,000 yrs
- inheritance of acquired traits
- traits come from parents
- can change self over lifetime and pass onto offspring
- ex) giraffe's
- not in genes so the traits don't get passed on
- demography- traits of a population
- populations can only grow so large based on the environment
- influenced Darwin
- traveled the world for five years as a naturalistand studied everything he saw
- found that the Galapagos islands are very different geographically and therefore the finches had to adapt
- did so by the change in their beaks
- survival of the fittest
- found natural selection in domesticated animals in England
included man in natural selection
- a naturalist
- came to the same conclusion as Darwin just later
- A monk in Austria
- grew peas and studied how traits were inherited
Describe the four fields of anthropology, with subdivisions within each area as discussed in class and in the book.
- Physical Anthropolgy: study the biology of humans ;medical anthro- study of genes; paleoanthropology- study of human evolution; primatology- study oliving and fossil primates; forensic anthro- ID human skeletal remains
- Cultural Anthro: study cultures; ethnology- comparative to other cultures; enthnography- detailed description based on field work
- Linguistics: study human languages; ex) dialects, accents, slang
- Archaeology: study of human cultures through remains; bioarchaeology- archaeological study of human remains (preserve culture); cultural resource management- protect historical remains threatened by construction
How is anthropology a holistic discipline?
it combines all disciplines
What is globalization? How does this relate to the anthropologists?
- The sharing of technology, social issues, political issues, health issues; sharing of information
- Anthropologists need to keep in mind that the world is becoming more similar
Describe development of evolutionary theory and identify contributors, including influences on Darwin.
- Great Chain of Being: a classificatio created by Aristotle; a hierarchy; a fixity- things do not change
- Classification: Carolus Linnaeus created binomial nomenclature- formal sys. of naming species with each name composed of 2 parts; taxonomy- classification of organisms based on similarities
- Cladistics: ancestral (a long time common ancestor) v. shared-derived (what makes certain groups unique); ex) Occam's razor
- Cuvier: catastrophism
- Lyell: uniformitarianism
- Lamarck: inheritance of acquired characteristics; girraffe's
- Malthus: population can only grow as long as their environment will allow them
- (1) The tendency of individual genetic characteristics in a population to vary from one another.
- (2) The potential of a genotype to change or deviate when exposed to environmental or genetic factors.
- more differences in population than compared to the outside
- need a selective pressure in environment = an environmental change
- a genetic variation (massive change over a long period of time)
- produce a difference with the ability to reproduce
the ability to produce more offspring with the same adaptations as the parents, allowing the species to survive under changed environmental conditions
- Deoxyribonucleic acid
- the genetic material consisting of a complex molecule whose base structure directs the synthesis of proteins
- A ladder like structure
- sides of ladder = phosphates and sugars
- the 4 bases = a-adenine, g-guanine, t-thymine, c-cytosine
- the transmission of genetic characters from parent organisms to their offspring through his scientific and cautious breeding experiments on pea plants
- came up with the punnett square
traits controlled by multiple genes
One gene can affect more than one trait
A portion of the DNA molecule containing a sequence of base pairs that is the fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity
- each type of trait
- everyone has two alleles for each trait (one from each parent)
- Homozygous: XX
- Heterozygous: XY
- Dominant allele: TT
- Recessive allele: tt
- genetic coding
- what the environment did to those genes
- the entire set of genes in an organism
- what we look like
- due to genes and environment
- ex) skin color, height, behavior
- process of conversion of RNA instructions into proteins
- tRNA-> amino acid->polypeptide chain-> creates protein
- The process follows transcription in which the DNA sequence is copied (or transcribed) into an mRNA.
It is the process of transcribing or making a copy of genetic information stored in a DNA strand into a complementary strand of RNA (messenger RNA or mRNA) with the aid of RNA polymerases.
- A kind of cell division that produces the sex cells, each of which has half the number of chromosomes found in other cells of the organism
- haploid: half the number of chromosomes
- A kind of cell division that produces new cells having exactly the same number of chromosome pairs, and hence copies of genes, as the parent cell.
- diploid: same number of chromosomes
- in the cell's nucleus, the structures visible during cellular division containing long strands of DNA combined with a protein
- dark bands: genes/alleles
- genetic material within the body
- The characterization of the chromosome complement of a species (such as the shape, type, number, etc. of chromosomes).
- The karyotype of an organism is usually displayed in photomicrographs wherein chromosomes are arranged in homologous pairs, and in descending order of size and relative position of the centromere.
- messanger RNA
- single stranded
- Abbreviated form for messenger ribonucleic acid, the type of RNA that codes for the chemical blueprint for a protein (during protein synthesis)
- transfer RNA
- RNA involved in protein synthesis, i.e. transporting specific amino acid to the ribosome to be added onto the growing polypeptide chain
In biology, a group of similar individuals that can and do interbreed.
- demonstrates algebraically that the percentage of individual that are homozygous for the dominant allele, homozygous for the recessive allele, and heterozygous should remain constant from one generation to the next, provided that certain specified conditions are met.
- understand if a population is at equillibrium
- no variation, stable, not evolving unless by an outside force
In genetics, mutation may be small scale (affecting the nucleotide sequence of a gene) or large scale (involving a change in the chromosome). It may arise from faulty deletions, insertions, or exchanges of nucleotides in the genetic material, as caused by exposure to ultraviolet or ionizing radiation, chemical mutagens, viruses, etc. Such a change may result in the creation of a new character or trait.
- The process of change in the genetic composition of a population due to chance or random events rather than by natural selection, resulting in changes in allele frequencies over time.
- Founder Effect: The establishment of a new population by a few original founders (in an extreme case, by a single fertilized female) which carry only a small fraction of the total genetic variation of the parental population
- Bottleneck: wipes out millions of people in a short period of time. ex) plague, natural disaster
- Gene Flow: the movement of genes from different populations of species. ex) migrating
- Natural Selection: changed by the enviromnent
- Non-Random Mating: ex) sperm donor; share religion; attraction
- An abnormalityin the formation of red blood cells caused by a mutation on chromosome eleven that is responsible for the production of functional haemoglobin.
- Blood can't carry oxygen
Define natural selection as part of evolution, and other influences on the process.
- Natural selection occurs during an environmental change. It affects a population and the change occurs over a long period of time.
- The 3 keys to natural selection are 1) a selective pressure in the environment 2) some sort of genetic variation 3) and produce a difference that is able to reproduce.
- artificial selection: forced by humans; ex) domesticated plants and animals
Explain evolutionary processes which lead to variation.
- Genetic drift: change in genetic composition of a population due to random events
- Founder Effect: a new population by a small group
- Bottleneck: millions die in a short period of time
- Gene Flow: ex) migration
- Natural selection: changed by the environment
- Non-Random Mating: ex) sperm donor
Describe the structure of the cell and the DNA molecule.
- The nucleus: the brain of the cell; where DNA is; from sperm
- Mitochondria: the cells powerhouse; produces energy; contains nuclear DNA which is mmore complex; DNA lasts longer; used in fossils; only passed down by the female
- Ribosomes: A minute particle composed of protein and ribonucleic acid (RNA) that serves as the site of protein synthesis.
Show how DNA is the blueprint for life.
DNA is said to carry the genetic ‘blueprint’ since it contains the instructions or information (called genes) needed to construct cellular components like proteins and RNA molecules.
Outline process of protein production and genes.
- Transcription: making a copy genetic info stored in a DNA strand; occurs in the nucleus
- Translation: the process follows transcription in which the DNA sequence is copied into an mRNA; creates protein
Describe and compare meiosis and mitosis.
- Meiosis: 2 daughter cells become 4 daughter cells = haploid: half the number of chromosomes
- Mitosis: only has 2 daughter cells = diploid: the same number of chromosomes
Identify chromosomes and karyotypes.
Describe cell division and problems associated with it.
- The separation of one cell into two daughter cells, involving both nuclear Division (mitosis) and subsequent cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis).
- The process in reproduction and growth by which a cell divides to form daughter cells.Also known as mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis is cell replication, where two cells that are an exact copy of their parent cell are created. Meiosis is where four gamete cells are created from the parent cell, with half the chromosome compliment.
- Issues: splitting of cells may have uneven chromosomes; ex) down syndrome and miscarriages
Describe the difference between population, polytypic, and subspecies.
- population: a group of similar individuals
- polytypic: describes the expression genetic variants in different frequencies in different populations of a species
- subspecies: a taxonomic group that is a division of a species; usually arises as a
- consequence of geographical isolation within a species.The most precise classification of organism. Our own species, Homo sapiens sapiens is a prime example of a subspecies, which over time had diversified from Homosapiens and respective common ancestors.
The study of genetic influences on the components of cause and effect in the somatic characteristics of populations.
The smallest working unit in the system of classification. Among living organisms, species are populations or groups of populations capable of interbreeding and producing fertile viable offspring.
Explain the idea of polymorphisms and explain why it's important.
- The occurrence of more than one kind or form of organisms of the same species that exist together in one locality.
- ex) most common example of polymorphism is sexual dimorphism in most higher organisms.
the group of mammals that includes lemurs, lorises, tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans
- characteristics that did not exist in ancestor organisms
- shared characteristics shared among a group of organisms
- what makes groups unique
share a common ancestor a loooong time ago
- complete 3 dimensional vision or depth perception
- overlapping vision allows depth perception
- a grouping of mammals defined as being primates, but
- not monkeys or apes. They include, among others, lemurs, bushbabies, and tarsiers.
- most primitive form of primates
- in Africa and far East
- many noctural
- small size
- wet noses
- eat insects
- sharp pointed teeth (36 teeth)
- ex) lemurs (only found in Madagascar), loris, tarsier (eyes bigger than brain; can't move eyes), aye aye (long finger to get insects)
Old World Monkeys
- larger in size
- flatter teeth (32 teeth)
- no prehensile tail
- more intelligent than prosimians because of a larger brain
- dry noses
- found in Asia and Africa
- have rump pads
- ex) Japanese Baboons (stay in hot springs); olive baboons (long snourt because of canine teeth); Proboscis (get a large nose when they mature that is purely athstetic(
New World Monkeys
- found on south and central America
- sit on hind legs like a dog; don't have rump pads
- some have aprehensile tail
- less advanced than OWM
- have 32 teeth
- ex) marmoset (tiny); Tamarin (small, have a mustache); Capuchin (performing monkey); squirrel monkey (prehensile tail)
- Far East Asia
- no tail
- swing with arms = open shoulder
- walk bipedally on the ground
- live 35 yrs
- live in families
- live in canopy in rainforests
- ex) Siamang; Gibbons
- most closely related to humans
- found in Africa and SE Asia
- no tail
- advanced intelligence
- increased finger dexterity (use tools)
- quadrapedal knuckle walkers (long arms, short legs)
- good vision
- ex) orangutans (males get pouches on the face); gorillas (start off tiny, live in large groups); chimpanzees (male is in charge); bonobos (female in charge)
- Extinction: every primate species is endangered due to- habitat destruction; hunting; trapping; wars
- Reproduction slow: invest years in offspring
How are Primates Classified?
Compare and contrast shared, derived traits vs. primitive traits.
- Shared-dericed traits are what a group of organisms unique that are not seen in their ancestors
- primitive traits are found in a common ancestor
eats a lot of fruit
eats a lot of insects
Polygyny / Harem
- Polygyny: marriage of a man to two or more women at the same time
- Harem: ex) the silver back gorilla; Hamadryas Baboons
- having one partner
- found in Gibbons; extremely rare
Multimale / Multifemale
- very popular
- form a community or troop
- found in baboons and chimps
the strong affinity that develops in some species between a pair males and females, potentially leading to producing offspring, or in some cases, as with humans, wolves, penguins, et cetera, in same-sex pairings as a life-long bond.
The marriage of a women to two or men at the same time
the part that is actively defended
the range they can travel to in a day
area where most time is spent
- beliefs and values
- ritualistic customs
- being passed down to next generation and to other group members
- innovative behavior
- unique from group to group
- males are bigger than females
- if no competition = similar size
- competition = an increase in sexual dimorphism
Determine Primate ecosystem effects on diet
- the ecosystem dictates what they eat
- the primates then adjust to the ecosystem and makes tools to help them get food
- determines if they will eat meat, fruit, or insects
Describe why behavior is studied in non-human primates.
- cognitive similarities and differences
- social interaction and communication
- genetic similarity
- models for evolution
- understand primate traits that apply to humans and non-human primates
- understand ourselves better
- study environment, traits, and needs to help them
- learn from them- use botanicles when ill, share similar diseases
- to learn about our past
- tool use
Outline types of social groups and reproductive strategies.
- Hmadryas Baboons: live in large troops that are made of smaller bands; strictly patriarchial; the 1 male rules the harem with an iron fist
- Japanese Macaques: ver socially structured; rigidly divided between the have's and have nots; the top women and kids get to go in the springs, involves politics; matriarchial
- Gorilla: stable family groups; led by silver back males; males eat all the time!; chest beating can travel miles- use to warn other males
- Tarsiers: form small family groups to hunt at night; group leaders sound alarm and all retreat; senior males and females let out high calls to guide stragglers home; have good communication
- Lemurs: females pee and let males know they are in heat; male tail have scent pharamone to attract females
- Orangutans: males have no contact with children; females care for young for years; pass down knowledge and culture
Define culture and explain how culture is found in non-human primates.
Chimps pass down their knowledge of tool use, plants that help with different ailments, how to collect food, how to make a nest.
Functions of the skeleton
- gives support
- provides protection
- mineral storage
Anatomy of a long bone
- shaft = diaphysis
- 2 ends = epiphyses: hold growth plates
- periosteum: outer covering, soft tissue
Muscle attaches to bone
- attach via tendons: periosteum- pulls on bone and builds muscle
- more muscle = stronger bones
- has 26 bones
- parietal bone: top of skull from mid way to almost the end
- occipital bone: the back of the skull
- frontal lobe: the forhead and back a little
- zygomatic bone: cheek bone
- maxilla: upper jaw; holds top teeth
- mandible: holds lower teeth; jaw
- soft spot on an infant is just soft tissue; there is space between the bones of a newborn because during birth the bones overlap
- Foramen Magnum: "big hole"; where the spinal cord attaches; gives indication of locamotion
- 32 adult teeth
- hardest substance in the body
- divided into four quadrants
- 2 incisors
- 1 canine
- 2 premolars
- 3 molars
- attachment for muscles of speech and swallowing
- where tongue attaches
- the shape makes speech useable