Ch 14

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Ch 14
2012-09-26 17:53:10
14 lymphatic

ch 14 lymphatic system
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  1. What system is responsible for returnign tissue fluid to the blood and for protecting the body against foreign material?
    The Lymphatic system
  2. What are the parts of the Lymphatic system
    • lymph
    • lymph vessels
    • lymphatic tissue: which includes lymph nodes, nodules, spleen, and thymus gland
  3. What is the tissue fluid that enters lymph capillaries
  4. These are dead-end lymph capillaries found in most tissue spaces
    Lymph vessels
  5. these are specialized lymph capillaries in the villi of the small intestine that absorb fat-soluble end products of digestion.
  6. Lymph vessels in the extremities, especially the legs are compressed by the skeletal muscles that surround them what is this called
    the skeletal muscle pump
  7. What alternately expands and compresses the lymph vessels in the chest cavity and keeps the lymph moving
    respiratory pump
  8. a vessel formed from lymph vessels from the lower body uniting in front of the lumbar vertebrae which this vessel continues upward in th front of the backbone as the thoracic duct.
    cisterna chyli
  9. Lymphatic tissue consists mainly of what type of tissue
    mainly lymphocytes in a mesh-like framework of conncective tissue
  10. The thymus has stem cells that produce a significant portion of which lymphocytes
    T lymphocytes
  11. Lymph nodes and nodules are what type of tissue
    lymphatic tissue
  12. these are encapusulated and are found in groups along the pathways of lymph vessesl and lymph flows through these on its way to the subclavian veins. they are about 10-20 mm in length
    lymph nodes
  13. these are smaller masses of lymphatic tissue. smaller than the lymph nodes and have no capsules found just beneaththe epithelium of all mucous membrane
    lymph nodules
  14. Plasma cells develop from which lymphocyte
    B lymphocytes exposed to pathogens in the lymph and produce antibodies
  15. what are some names of lymph nodules
    • tonsils
    • Peyer's patches
  16. The lymph nodules of the small intestine are called
    Peyer's patches
  17. What is the important function of Peyer's patches
    to learn to distinguish food (friend) to foe
  18. What organ is like a largy lymph node
    the spleen
  19. what are the functions of the spleen
    • has plasma cells that produce antibodies to foreign antigens
    • phagocytize pathogen or ther foreign material in blood
    • phagocytize old red blood cells and form bilifubin
    • does clean up and repair
    • stores platelets and destroy them when no longer needed
  20. what organ is located in the upper left quadant of the abdominal cavity, just below the diaphragm, behind the stomach
  21. what organ is located inferior to the thyroid gland
  22. what does the stem cells of the thymus produce
    T lympocytes or T cells
  23. What are the two capabilities developed in the thymus from immature T cells
    • self-recognition
    • self-tolerance
  24. this is the ability to distinguish the cells that belong in the body from those that do not
  25. this is the ability not ot react to proteins and other organic molecules our cells produce
  26. this is the ability to destroy pathogens or other foreign material and to prevent further cases of certain infectious diseases.
  27. these are chemical markers that identify cells
  28. what are the two main components of immunity
    • innate immunity
    • adaptive immunity
  29. aka nonspecific, does not creat memory, response is always same regardless of target. has anatomic and physiological barriers, phogcytic and other defensive cells, and chemical secretions and reactions, including inflammation
    innate immunity
  30. What cells are circulated in the blood but are also found in the red bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes and are able to destroy many kinds of pathogens and tumor cells
    Natural killer cells
  31. these cells are defensive cells that are found throughout the areolar connective tissue of ucous membranes and the subcutaneous tissue and produce histamine and leukotrienes
    Basophils and mast cells
  32. a chemical defense that are protein produced by cells infected with viruses and by t cells
    interferons (Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-interferons)
  33. what are the 3 aspects of innate immunity
    • barriers
    • defensive cells
    • chemical defenses
  34. what are the barriers from pathogens
    • Integumentary system
    • Mucous membranes and lysozyme
  35. What are the defensive cells from innate immunity
    • Langerhans cells
    • Phagocytes
    • Natural killer cells
    • Basophils and mast cells
  36. What are the chemical defenses of our innate immunity from pathogens
    interferon (T cell blocks viral reproduction)
    complement (lyses cells attracts WBCs)
  37. is a chemical defense. is a group of more thanĀ  20 plasma proteins that circulate in the blood until activated. calls lysis of cellular antigens and labels of noncellular antigens.
  38. this immunity is specific to its target, may involve antibodies, does create memory, and may become more efficient and is carried out by lymphocytes and macrophages
    Adaptive immunity
  39. where are t cells produced
    bone marrow and thymus
  40. When activated during an immune response these cells well divide many times and beome plasma cells that produce anibodies to a specific foreign antigen
    b cells
  41. specialized groups of t lymphocytes are called
    helper t cells
  42. this cell will remeber the specific foreign antigen and bcome active if it enters the body
    memory T cells
  43. These cess are able to chemically destroy foreign antigens by disrupting cell membranes
    cytotoxic T cells
  44. what is another name for antibodies
    immune glogulins (Ig) or gamma globulins
  45. formed antigen-antibody comples which means the antigen is now labeled for phagocytosis by macrophages or neutrophils.
  46. is the clumping of antibodies to bacterial cells
  47. this type of immunity does not involve antibodies or immune system. it is the result of our genetic make up
    genetic immunity
  48. this type of immunity requires antibodies
    acquired immunity
  49. this immunity means that the antibodies are from another source (vaccines)
    passive immunity
  50. This immunity means that the individual produces his or her own antibodies
    active immunity
  51. What are the classes of antibodies
    • IgG
    • IgA
    • IgM
    • IgE
    • IgD
  52. crosses the placenta to provide passive immunity for newborns
    provides long-term immunity following recovery or a vaccine
    Location : blood, extracellular fluid
  53. present in breast milk to provide passive immunity for breast-fed infants
    found in secretions of all mucous membranes
    location: external secretions (tears, saliva,)
  54. Produced first by the maturing immune system of infants
    produced first during an infection
    Part of ABO blood group
    Location: blood
  55. Receptors on B lymphocytes
    Location: b lymphocytes
  56. Important in allergic reactions (mast cells release histamine)
    location: mast cells or basophils