Med. Term Nervous System

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edeper19
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Med. Term Nervous System
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2012-09-26 18:41:53
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Nervous system Medical term
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The nervous system vocab/term
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  1. acetylcholine
    neurotransmitter chemical relased at the end of nerce cells
  2. afferent nerve
    carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord (sensory nerve)
  3. arachnoid membrane
    middle layer of the three membranes (meninges) that surround the brain and cpinal cord.
  4. astrocyte
    type of glial (neuroglial) cell that transport water and salts from capillaries
  5. autonomic nervous system
    nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs
  6. axon
    microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell.
  7. blood-brain barrier
    protective mechanism that blocks specific substances found in the bloodstream from entering delicate brain tissue
  8. brainstem
    lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord; includes the pons and medulla oblongata.
  9. cauda equina
    collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord
  10. cell body
    parts of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus
  11. central nervous system (CNS)
    network of nervous tissue found in the brain and spinal cord
  12. cerebellum
    posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance.
  13. cerebral cortex
    outer region of the cerebrum, containing sheets of nerve cells; gray matter of the brain
  14. cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
    circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord
  15. cerebrum
    largest part of the brain responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought and memory
  16. cranial nerve
    12 pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain with regard to the head and neck (except the vagus nerve)
  17. dendrite
    microscopic branching fiber of the nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse
  18. dura mater
    thick, outermost layer of the menindes surrpunding and protecting the brain and spinal cord
  19. efferent nerve
    carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord, motor nerve
  20. ependymal cell
    glial cell that lines membranes within the brain and spinal cord and helps form cerebrospinal fluid
  21. ganglionĀ 
    collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system
  22. glial cell
    supportive and connective nerve cells that does not carry nervous impulses. Examples are astrocytes.
  23. gyrus
    sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded ridge on the surface of the cerebral cortex; convolution
  24. hypothalamus
    portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temp, and secretions from the pituitary gland.
  25. medulla oblongata
    part of the brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, and the size of blood vessels; nerve fibers cross over here
  26. meninges
    3 protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cords
  27. microglial cell
    phagocytic glial cell that removes waste products from the central nervous system
  28. motor nerve
    carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs; efferent nerve
  29. myelin sheath
    covering the shite fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell. Myelin speeds impulse conduction along axons.
  30. nerve
    macroscopic cord-like collection of fibers (axons and dendrites) that carry electrical impulses
  31. neuron
    nerve cell that carries impluses throughout the body
  32. neurotransmitter
    chemical messenger released at the end of a nerve cell. It stimulates or inhibits another cell, which can be a nerve cell, muscle cell, or gland cell. (dopamine)
  33. oligodendroglian cell
    glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons. Also called oligodendrocyte.
  34. parasympathetic nerves
    involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions such as heart rate, breathing, and muscles of the gastrointestinal tract
  35. parenchyma
    essential, distinguishing tissue of any organ or system. this includes the brain, spinal cord, and nuerons.
  36. peripheral nervous system
    nerves outside the brain and spinal cord; cranial, spinal and autonomic nerves
  37. pia mater
    thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges
  38. plexus
    large, interlacing network of nerces
  39. pons
    parts of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between teh medulla and the rest of te midbrain. It is a bridge connecting various parts of the brain.
  40. receptor
    organ that recieves a nervous stimulus and passes it on to afferent nerves. The skin, ears, eyes, and taste buds are receptors.
  41. sciatic nerve
    Nerve extending from teh base of the spine down the thigh, lower led and foot. Sciattic is pain or inflammation along the course of the nerve.
  42. sensory nerve
    carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord from a receptor; afferent nerve
  43. spinal nerves
    31 paris of nerves arising from the spinal cord
  44. stimulus
    agent of change in the interanl or external environment that evokes a response.
  45. stroma
    connective and supporting tissue of an organ. Glial cells are the stromal tissue of the brain.
  46. sulcus
    depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex; fissure
  47. symphathetic nerve
    autonomic nerces that influence bodily functions involuntary in times of stress
  48. synapse
    space through which a nervous impulse travels between nerve cells or between nerve and muscle or glandular cells.
  49. thalamus
    main relay center of the brain. Conducts impulses between the spinal cord and the cerebrum
  50. vagus nerve
    10th cranial nerve
  51. ventricles of the brain
    canals in the brain that contrain cerebrospinal fluid.
  52. cerebell/o
    cerebellum
  53. cerebr/o
    cerebrum
  54. crani/o
    cranium (skull)
  55. dur/o
    dura mater
  56. encephal/o
    brain
  57. gli/o
    glial cells
  58. kines/o
    kinesi/o
    -kinesia
    -kinesis
    -kinetic
    movement
  59. lept/o
    thin, slender
  60. lex/o
    word, phrase
  61. mening/o
    meningi/o
    • meninges (membranes covering brain and spinal cord)
    • membranes
  62. my/o
    muscle
  63. myel/o
    bone marrow; spinal cord
  64. neur/o
    nerve
  65. pont/o
    pons
  66. radiculo/o
    nerve roots (of spinal nerves)
  67. thalam/o
    thalamus
  68. thec/o
    sheath (usually refers to meninges)
  69. vag/o
    vagus nerve (10th cranial nerve)
  70. alges/o
    -algesia
    • excessive
    • sensitivity to pain
  71. -algia
    pain
  72. caus/o
    burning
  73. comat/o
    deep sleep (coma)
  74. -esthesi/o
    -esthesia
    feeling, nervous, sensation
  75. -kinesia
    movement
  76. -lepsy
    seizure
  77. -paresis
    weakness
  78. -phasia
    speech
  79. -plegia
    paralysis (loss or impairment of the ability to move parts of the body)
  80. -plaxia
    action
  81. -sthenia
    strength
  82. syncop/o
    to cut off, cut short
  83. tax/o
    order, coordination
  84. para-
    near, beside; beyond
  85. syn-
    union, together, joined
  86. absense seizure
    minor (petit mal) form of a seizure, consiting of momentary clouding of consciousness and loss of awareness of surroundings.
  87. aneurysm
    enlarged, weakened area in an arterial wall, which may rupture, leading to hemorrhage and CVA (stroke)
  88. astrocytoma
    malignant tumor of astrocytes (glial brain cells)
  89. aura
    peculiar sensation or sensation occuring before the onset (prodromal) of an attack of migraine or an epileptic seizure
  90. dementia
    mental decline and deterioration
  91. demyelination
    destruction of myelin on axons of nerurons (as in multiple sclerosis)
  92. dopamine
    CNS neurotransmitter, deficient in patient with Parkinson disease
  93. embolus
    clot of material that travels through the bloodstream and suddenly blocks a vessel
  94. gait
    manner of walking
  95. ictal event
    partaining to a sudden, acute onset, as with the convulsions of an epileptic seizureĀ 
  96. occlusion
    blockage
  97. palliative
    relieving symptoms but not curing them
  98. thymectomy
    removal of the thymus gland ( a lymphocyte producing gland in the chest); used as treatment for myasthenia gravis.
  99. TIA
    transient ischemic attack
  100. tic
    involuntary movement of a small group of muscles, as of the face; characteristic of Tourette syndrome
  101. tonic-clonic seizure
    major (grand mal) convulsion seizure marjed by sudden loss of consciousness, stiffening of muscles, and twitching and jerking movements.
  102. paralysis
    -hemiplegia
    -paraplegia
    -quadriplegia
    • loss of voluntary motion in one or more muscle groups with or without loss of sensation
    • -paralysis of one side of the body, typically as the result of a stroke; also called unilateral paralysis
    • -paralysis of both lower limbs, typically as a result of trauma or disease of the lower spinal cord
    • -paralysis of both arms and legs, typically as a result of trauma or disease of the upper spinal cord
  103. psychosis
    major emotiona disorder in which contact with reality is lost to the point that the individual is inapable of meeting challenges of daily life
  104. spina bifida
    -meningocele
    -myelomeningocele
    -occulta
    • defect in which the neural tube (tissue that forms the brain and spinal cord in the fetus) fails to close during embryogenesis
    • -form of spina bifida in which the spinal cord develops properly but the meninges protrude through the spine
    • -most severe form of spina bifida in which the spinal cord and meninges protrude through the spine
    • -form of spina bifida in which one or more vertebrae are malformed and the spinal cord is covered with a layer of skin
  105. paresthesia
    sensation of numbness, prickling, tingling, or heightened sensitivity
  106. poliomyelitis
    inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, commonly resulting in spianl and muscle deformity and paralysis
  107. Reye syndrome
    acute encephalopathy and fatty infiltration of the brain, liver and, possibly, heart kidney, spleen, and lymph nodes
  108. sciatica
    severe pain in the leg along the course of the sciatic nerve felt at the base of the spine, down the thigh, and radiating downt the leg due to a compressed nerve
  109. syncope
    temporary loss of consciousness due to the sudden decline of blood flow to the brain; also falled fainting
  110. tonic-clonic seizure
    general type of seizure characterized by the loss of consciousness and stiffening of the body (tonic phase) followed by rhythmic, jerking movements (clonic phase)
  111. transient ischemic attack (TIA)
    temporarty interference with blood supply to the brain lasting from a few minutes to a few hours
  112. electoencephalography (EEG)
    recording of electrical activity in the brain, whose cells emit distinct patterns of rhythmic electrical impulses
  113. electomyography (EMG)
    recording of electrical signals (action potentials) that occur in a muscle when it is at rest and during contraction to assess nerve damage
  114. lumbar puncture
    needle puncture of the spinal cavity to extract spinal fluid for diagnostic purposes, introduce anesthetic agents into the spinal canal, or remove fluid to allow other fluids (such as radiopaque substances) to be injected; also called spinal puncture and spinal tap
  115. nerve conduction velocity (NCV)
    test that measures the speed at which impulses travel through a nerve
  116. cerbrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis
    series of chemical, microscopic, and microbial tests used to diagnose disorders of the CNS, including viral and bacterial infections, tumors, and hemmorrhage
  117. angiography
    -cerebral
    • radiography of the blood vessels after introduction of a contrast medium
    • -angiography of blood vessels of the brain after injection of a contrast medium; also called cerebral anteriography
  118. myelography
    diagnostic and radiological examination of the spinal canal, nerve roots, and spinal cord after injection of a contrast medium into the spinal canal
  119. positron emission tomography (PET)
    scan using computed tomography to record the positrons (poitively charged particles) emitted from a radiopharmaceutical and produce a cross-sectional image of metabolic activity in body tissues to determine the presence of disease
  120. echoencephalography
    ultrasound technique used to study intracraial structures of the brain and conditions that cause a shift in the midline structure of the brain
  121. cryosurgery
    technique that exposes abnormal tissue to extreme cold to destroy it
  122. stereotaxic radiosurgery
    precise method of locating and destorying sharply circumscribed lesions on specific, tiny areas of pathological tissue in deep-seated structures of the CNS; also called stereotaxy or stereotactic surgery
  123. thalamotomy
    partial destruction the thalamus to treat intractable pain, involuntary movements, or emotional disturbances
  124. tractotomy
    transection of a nerve tract in the brainstem or spinal cord
  125. trephination
    technique that cuts a circular opening into the skull to reveal brain tissue and decrease intracranial pressure
  126. vagotomy
    interruption of the function of the vagus nerve to relieve peptic ulver
  127. anesthetic
    -general
    -local
    • produce partial or complete loss of sensation, whith or without loss of consciousness
    • -act upon the brain to produce a complete loss of feeling with loss of consciousness
    • -act upon nerves or nerve tracts to affect a local area only
  128. anticonvulsants
    prevent uncrontrolled neuron activity assocaited with seizures by altering electrical transmission along neurons or alterint he chemical composition of neurotransmitters; also called antiepileptics
  129. antiparkinsonian agents
    control tremors and muscle rigitiy associated with parkinson disease by increasing dopamine in the brain
  130. antidepressants
    treat multiple symptoms of depression by increasing levels of specific neurotransmitters

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