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a characteristic that can vary or take on different values
- ex) height is a variable
- ** independent and dependent variable
a number representing one of many possible states of the variable
ex) some possible values are 6 ft or 4 feet 2 inches
a specific value for a given person
ex) my score on the variable of height is 5 feet 11 inches
How to systematically observe something?
it is critical to have a well defined or quantative system of measurement.
- ex) how far are you sititng from screen?
- ***use ruler or tape meausre to measure it
Can Psychological properties be measured?
What kind of statement is this? "some people are more shy than others
- ** subject to numeric qualification
subject to numeric qualification
2 types of important variables
categorical or continuous
Categorical, taxonic, qualitative or nominal variables...
people either belong to a group or they do not.
ex) country of origin, biological sex, animal or non animal, married vs single
*how many people belong to each category?
-people vary in a graded way with respect to the property of interest
ex) age, working memory capacity, and marital discord
quantitative q: how much? or to what extent or degree?
(scales of measurement) Ordinal
-designates an ordering; quasi-ranking
-does not assume that the intervals between numbers are equal
ex) finishing place in a race (first place, second place)
(scales of measurement) interval
-designates an equal-interval ordering
distance between a 1 and 2 is same distance as 4 and 5
ex) common IQ tests
(scales of measurement) Ratio
- -designates an equal-interval ordering with a true zero
- * zero implies an absence of the thing being measured
- ex) number of intimate relationships a peron has had.
- *zero means none
- * a person with 4 has had twice as many as 2
MOst observable behaviors can be measured by...
many unobservable psychological qualities are measured on...
on general by interval scales
- variables: categorical
- COntinuous: ordinal, interval, ratio