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Variable
a characteristic that can vary or take on different values
 ex) height is a variable
 ** independent and dependent variable

Value
a number representing one of many possible states of the variable
ex) some possible values are 6 ft or 4 feet 2 inches

Score
a specific value for a given person
ex) my score on the variable of height is 5 feet 11 inches

How to systematically observe something?
it is critical to have a well defined or quantative system of measurement.
 ex) how far are you sititng from screen?
 ***use ruler or tape meausre to measure it

Can Psychological properties be measured?
Yes!

What kind of statement is this? "some people are more shy than others
 quantitative
 ** subject to numeric qualification

Quantitative
subject to numeric qualification

2 types of important variables
categorical or continuous

Categorical, taxonic, qualitative or nominal variables...
people either belong to a group or they do not.
ex) country of origin, biological sex, animal or non animal, married vs single
*how many people belong to each category?

Continuous variables
people vary in a graded way with respect to the property of interest
ex) age, working memory capacity, and marital discord
quantitative q: how much? or to what extent or degree?

(scales of measurement) Ordinal
designates an ordering; quasiranking
does not assume that the intervals between numbers are equal
ex) finishing place in a race (first place, second place)

(scales of measurement) interval
designates an equalinterval ordering
distance between a 1 and 2 is same distance as 4 and 5
ex) common IQ tests

(scales of measurement) Ratio
 designates an equalinterval ordering with a true zero
 * zero implies an absence of the thing being measured
 ex) number of intimate relationships a peron has had.
 *zero means none
 * a person with 4 has had twice as many as 2

MOst observable behaviors can be measured by...
ratioscale

many unobservable psychological qualities are measured on...
on general by interval scales

chart order
 variables: categorical
 COntinuous: ordinal, interval, ratio

