Acute tubular necrosis, renal aretery or vein stenosis or thrombosis
Formation of crystals in nephron tubules
What are the causes of postrenal azotemia?
Caused by obstruction of the urine collecting system anywhere from the calyces to the urethral meatus (obstruction of the ureter must be bilateral to cause postrenal failure unless only one kidney is functional) such as:
What are the three access types for hemodialysis?
1. Areteriovenous fistula: permanent-connects artery to vein usually in forearm
2. Areterivenous graft: permanent- synthetic material tunneled underskin to connect artery to a vein
3. Cathetar: temporary- placed in a large central vein such as the internal jugular vein
What are the key concepts for the endocrine system?