A&P1 Anatomy of Cells.txt

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janelleortiz
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173705
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A&P1 Anatomy of Cells.txt
Updated:
2012-09-26 19:31:19
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Anatomy Cell
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A&P1 Anatomy of Cells
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  1. Typical Cell
    Composite cell
  2. Plasma Membrane
    Separates the cell from its surrounding environment and controls what enters and leaves the cell
  3. Cytoplasm
    Thick gel-like substance inside of the cell composed of numerous organelles suspended in watery cytosol
  4. Nucleus
    Large membranous structure near the center of the cell
  5. Fluid Mosaic Model
    Theory explaining how cell membranes are constructed
  6. What is embedded into the plasma membrane to give it strength?
    Cholesterol
  7. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Extend from the plasma membrane to the nucleus
    • Highway of the cell
  8. Rough ER
    • Has ribosomes on the outer surface
    • These ribosomes synthesize proteins that move toward the Golgi apparatus and then eventually leave the cell
    • FUNCTION: Synthesize proteins and intracellular transportation
  9. Smooth ER
    • Synthesize lipids and carbohydrates and creates membranes for use throughout the cell
    • Remove and store Ca from the cells interior
  10. Ribosomes
    • FUNCTION: synthesize protein
    • Nonmembranous structure composed of rRNA
    • Free ribosomes make protein for use in the cell
  11. Golgi apparatus
    • Membranous organelle
    • Process protein molecules from the Rough ER
    • Processed proteins then leave the final cisterna in a vesicle
  12. Lysosomes
    • Made from microscopic membranous sacs that have “pinched off” from the Golgi Apparatus
    • FUNCTION: cell’s digestive system
    • Enzymes digest the protein structures of the defective cell parts
  13. Proteasomes
    Break down abnormal/misfolded proteins and normal proteins no longer needed by the cell
  14. Peroxiomes
    • Small membranous sacs containing enzymes that detoxify harmful substances that enter the cells
    • Often seen in the kidney and liver cells
  15. Mitochondria
    • Power house of the cell
    • Provide about 95% of the cell’s energy supply
    • Has its own DNA molecule
  16. Nucleus
    • Spherical body in the center of the cell
    • Contains the DNA
  17. Chromatin threads
    DNA in nondividing cells
  18. Chromosomes
    DNA in early stages of cell division
  19. Cytoskeleton
    Cell’s internal supporting framework made up of rigid, rodlike pieces that provide support and allow movement
  20. Cytoskeleton made up of
    • Intermediate filament
    • Microtubules
    • Microfilaments
  21. Microfilaments
    • Smallest cell fibers
    • Cell muscle
    • They can cause shortening of the cell
    • Made of thin twisted strands of protein molecules that lie parallel to the long axis of the cell
  22. Intermediate Filaments
    • Slightly thicker than the microfilaments
    • Form the supporting framework in a lot of cells
  23. Microtubules
    • Tiny hollow tubes that are the thickest of the cell fibers
    • Function: move things around the cell
  24. Centrosome
    • An area of the cytoplasm that coordinates the building and breaking down of microtubules in the cell
    • Nonmebranous
  25. Cell extensions
    • Microvilli
    • Cilia
    • Flagella
  26. Microvilli
    • Help to increase surface area where absorption is important
    • Found in the small intestine
  27. Cilia
    • Found in the respiratory and female reproductive system
    • Clean bacteria and help ovum travel via fallopian tubes
  28. Flagella
    Only found on male sperm cells
  29. Types of cell connection
    • Desmosome
    • Gap Junctions
    • Tight Junction
  30. Desmosomes
    • Usually seen in skin cells
    • Spot desmosomes
    • Belt desmosomes
    • Think they are like velcro
  31. Gap junctions
    Membrane channels of adjacent plasma membranes adhere to each other
  32. Tight Junctions
    • Occur in cells that are joined by collars of tightly fused material
    • Molecules can not permeate the crack
    • Occurs in lining of the intestines

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